HideShow resource information
  • Created by: Amh
  • Created on: 08-04-16 12:07
Are UTIs serious
Yes they can cause sepsis and death
1 of 62
What are lower urinary tract infection
Bladder/urethra cystitis
2 of 62
What are upper utis
pyelonephritis, and abscess formation
3 of 62
What is the most likely cause of UTIs
E. coli
4 of 62
What serogroup is most likely to cause disease
5 of 62
What is ecoli (025)'s virulence factors
Serum resistances, adhesion factors, ability to synthesise nutritional factors, and iron acquisition
6 of 62
What other organisms are likely to cause UTIs
Klebsiella • Enterobacter • Proteus, enterococci, pseudomonas, staphylococci aurues/saprophyticus, candida, adenovirus?
7 of 62
Risk factors
Being female (short urethra hormones pregnancy, sexually active. Instumenttation like catheters or congential abnormalities, diabetes
8 of 62
What are the symptoms of a lower UTI
Frequency OF uination, dysuria, lower abdominal pain
9 of 62
symptoms of pyelonephritis
Fever, flank pain +/- lower UTI symptoms
10 of 62
Symptoms of uti in kisDS
non specific, fever, failure to thrive, vomiting
11 of 62
What are the symptoms in elderly
Aymptomatic, and confused
12 of 62
What sort of specimen do you need
Clean catch midstream
13 of 62
What are issues with samples
Contamination with skin/faecal flora, catheter colonisation, kids,
14 of 62
What is the best way to get a specimen
Suprapubic aspiration
15 of 62
What are indicators of UTIS
Nitrte, and lysed WBC (leucocyte esterase)
16 of 62
When looking at a urine sample under the microscope whatare we looking for
RBC RBC bacteria and casts
17 of 62
What number of bacteriais significant for diagnosis
10^5 cfu/m
18 of 62
What sort of loop do we use
calibrated loop 0.01ml x 100 for cfu/ml
19 of 62
What do we culture urine on
CLED (Cystine-lactose electrolyte deficient) or chromogenic agar
20 of 62
How do you treat an uncomplicated UTI
Oral co-amoxiclav, quinolone, trimethoprim, nitrofurantoin, or cephalexin • 3-5 days
21 of 62
How would you treat a complecated UTI
IV antibiotics, broader spectrum longer course
22 of 62
How do you treat recurrent UTIs
prophylaxis or treat structural abnormalities
23 of 62
if kids have recurrent utis what does this indicate
renal tract abnormalitis
24 of 62
what can kids you get recuurent renal tract infections get
renal scarring and renal failure
25 of 62
What can pyelonephritis in pregnant women cause
preterm delivery low birthweight risk of preeclampsia
26 of 62
How can you reduce uis from catheters
go in supra pubically
27 of 62
What causes gonorrhoeas
Neisseria Gonorrhoea
28 of 62
What are the characteristics of Neisseria gonorrhoea
Oxidase positive intracellular diplococci
29 of 62
How do you diagnose Neisseria gonorrhoea
clinically bus pus
30 of 62
How do you culture Neisseria gonorrhoea
sensitive to drying and tep, must plate within 6hrs, must be transported in co2 and innoculared on plated immediatly. Grows on thayer matin/new yourk/chocolate agar
31 of 62
What molecular assays can you do
Genprobe- non amplified DNA probe assay, or Nucleic acid amplification tests e.g. PCR
32 of 62
How do you treat Neisseria gonorrhoea
Quinolones like ciprofloxacin, Cephlasporins like ceftriaxones and cefiximes
33 of 62
What is Neisseria gonorrhoea resistant to
tetracylcine and penicillin
34 of 62
What bacteria causes chlamydia
Chlamydia trachomatis
35 of 62
What are the characteristics of Chlamydia trachomatis
obligate intracellular bacteria, hard to stain
36 of 62
How many serovars are there
17 they cause different clinical syndromes
37 of 62
What are the symptoms Chlamydia trachomatis
may be asymptomatic, may be discharge Cervicitis, proctitis, salpingitis, epididymitis • Pelvic inflammatory disease
38 of 62
What does pelvic inflammatory disease cause
» Infertility » Ectopic pregnancy
39 of 62
How do you diagnose »Chlamydia trachomatis
immunofluorescent staining, antigen detection via ELISA, and PCRs
40 of 62
How do you treat Chlamydia trachomatis
Macrolides, tetracyclines, quinolones
41 of 62
What causes syphilis
Treponema pallidum
42 of 62
What is Treponema pallidum
A helical flagellated motile rod parasite
43 of 62
What are the stages of syphilis
Primary, secondary, tertiary and latent
44 of 62
What is the presentation of primary syphilils
painless chancre that resolve after 3-8 wks
45 of 62
What is the secoundary stage
Dissemination 4-10 weeks after chancre, there is a general rash, mucosal ulcers, Condolymata lata • Malaise, fever, lymphadenopathy
46 of 62
how long does it take for secoundary infections to resolve
3-12 weeks
47 of 62
What happens after the secondary infection resolves
it becomes a latent infection
48 of 62
What does tertiary syphilis presnt as
Cardiovascular issues, Visceral issues, neurological issues
49 of 62
What sort of cardiovascular issues
Aortitis, and valve abnormalitiess
50 of 62
What sort of visceral abnormalities arise
lesions in bones, and organs
51 of 62
What sort of neurological symptoms arise
Meningovascular meningitis • General paralysis of the insane • Tabes dorsalis
52 of 62
When is congenital syphilis at it's highest risk
WHen mother is in the early stages
53 of 62
Can you prevent congenital syphilis
Yes if treated befpre 16weeks
54 of 62
What is the presentation of congenital syphilis
Rash, some visceral involvement, fulinant disease,
55 of 62
What is late presentation of congenital syphylis
keratitis, skeletal abnormalities, meningoencephalitis
56 of 62
how do you diagnose syphilis
Dark feild microscopy, monoclonal fuoorescent antibodies,
57 of 62
What do you stain histological slids with when looking for syphilis
Warthin-Starry stain of histopathological samples
58 of 62
What serology studies can you do
Treponemal enzyme immunoassays, t pallidum haemaglutnation assay, T pallidium particle agglutination assay these are specific. Non specific =Venereal disease reference laboratory (VDRL) • Rapid Plasma Reagin (R
59 of 62
In primary syphilis What serologies will be positive
Maybe specifc serologies or non-specific serologies
60 of 62
In 2ndary syphilis what serology is positive
both specific an non-specifc
61 of 62
How do you treat syphilis
s Depends on stage but Benzathine penicillin • Doxycycline, tetracycline, azythromycin • Neurosyphilis - IV penicillin, ceftriaxone
62 of 62

Other cards in this set

Card 2


What are lower urinary tract infection


Bladder/urethra cystitis

Card 3


What are upper utis


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


What is the most likely cause of UTIs


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


What serogroup is most likely to cause disease


Preview of the front of card 5
View more cards


No comments have yet been made

Similar Biology resources:

See all Biology resources »See all uti micro resources »