Utilitarianism

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What is utilitarianism?
The moral doctrine that one should always seek the greatest balance of good over evil.
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What is the hedonic calculus?
Gives seven criteria to determine which act should be performed.
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What are the seven criteria of the hedonic calculus?
Intensity. Duration. Certainty. Propinquity. Fecundity . Purity. Extent.
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What is Act utilitarianism? (Bentham)
Believes that we should always perform the act which will lead to the greatest balance of good over evil.
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What is Rule utilitarianism? (Mill)
Believes that we should always follow the rule general adherence to which will lead to the greatest overall balance of good over evil.
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What is Preference utilitarianism? (Singer)
Holds that we should lok t seek as the good that which we would rationally prefer as an outcome, even though it may not be in our own best interests.
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Objection 1?
It can be questioned whether it is a genuine moral theory. This is because it includes evil . It permits harm to be done, provided that the evil is outweighed by the good.
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Objection 2?
The evil permitted may be needlessly great in ways that are counter-intuitive as well as wrong in themselves. 500 good 0 evil < 501 good and 1000 evil.
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Objection 3?
We need sufficient intellectual ability to make the appropriate decision.
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Objection 4?
It can be difficult to determine whether the agent performed a good act. We could save someone from drowning, who is a mass murderer. Does this make my action bad?
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What is the hedonic calculus?

Back

Gives seven criteria to determine which act should be performed.

Card 3

Front

What are the seven criteria of the hedonic calculus?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What is Act utilitarianism? (Bentham)

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What is Rule utilitarianism? (Mill)

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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