USSR ; stalin exercise power over party + state ; purges of '30s

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key instrument was Party Secritariat which did what?
collected information on Pary members that could be used to condemn them as enemies of the peopl
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what three things did the secret police carry out?
surveillance / arrests / executions
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they also ran labour camps or?
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what had lenin's cheka evlolved to?
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by which year?
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by this point what had secret police's role become?
increasingly bureaugratic + dom. whole police force
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what was the consequence of purges under lenin?
hand in party card and expelled from party
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CHISTKA OF 1932-35
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which in '32 was a response to launching which two policies?
first five-year plan + collectivisation
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what about these policies concerned party officials?
speed @ which implemented
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and what did they do as they were unhappy with orders from party leadership in moscow?
ignored them
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chistka designed to remove these officials and speed up?
implementation economic policy
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by '35 what % party had been removed from posts?
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what type of process was it essentally?
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but showed what was mounting?
opposition to stalin's policies
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which two people were key purge victims on left of party?
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and on right which three?
bukharin / tomsky / rykov
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however, how were purges also extended down to local level?
quotas set by stalin
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detailing what % each party branch should be identified as?
'enemies of the people'
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a stupid accusation was that they were working with?
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or spying for?
capitalist powers
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or plotting to?
assassinate stalin
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one victim accused of meeting with saboteurs wehre?
in hotel that hadn't even been built yet
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this bizarre nature has lead many historians to believe they can only reflect?
stlain's paranoid personality
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what creepy af thing did stalin tell khrushchev?
'i trust nobody, not even myself'
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who was ryutin in 1932?
former party secretary
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who issued a document to who in 1932?
central committee
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which did what?
highly criticised stalin
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what did he accuse stalin of building
personal dictatorship
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and called upon central committee to do what?
remove him from power
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what was a major form of criticism economically?
brutality used to enforce collectivisation
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peasant resistance led to serious unrest in whihc two places?
ukraine + caucasus region
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who raised these concerns specifically?
stalin's wife nadezhda alliluyeva
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who killed herself in which year?
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party officials also critical of which elements of the 5yps?
unrealistic targets
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at what event in 1934 did these criticisms gain strength?
seventeenth party congress
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what was this congress supposed to be?
'congress of victors'
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celebrating successes of?
first five-year plan
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when met who did moderates put pressure on to raise concerns?
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up and coming in which position?
leningrad party secretary
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what did they hope to happen bc of this?
pace of change slowed
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what did kirov recieve that matched stalin's?
wave support + standing ovations
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it was in this context of growing criticisms that what big event of the '30s took place?
the great purge
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when (d/m/y)
1st december '34
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and what big thing did this precipate
great purge
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who assassinated him?
leonid nikolayev
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who was a party member with personal grudge against?
both party and kirov
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what did he feel party hadn't done?
appreciated his talents
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and there was a rumour going around that?
kirov was having an affair with his wife
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but it was suspicious bc who was kirov w/o @ time of murder?
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and what was nikolayev trained to do?
shoot pistol by NKVD
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so it was suggested murder of kirov was?
carried out by stlain's orders
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official explanation was that the assassin was part of opposition group led by?
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and what happened with the arrests?
each led to a further arrest with bigger charges and beef and beef and beef ensued
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when were kamzino arrested and brought to trial (m/y)?
january 1935
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and sentenced to?
long terms imprisonment
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thus murder of kirov was catalyst for?
purgign large sections of party
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during '35-6 there was a wave denunciations + arrests of members of which group?
Left Opposition
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party members advised to be vigilant against which ppl?
'enemies of the ppl' (shocker, right?)
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which led to a series of showtrials in which who was accused of what?
former eleading figures in party accused of anti-soviet activities
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victims dealt with in how many waves?
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and these were the trial of the?
16 / 17 / 21
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who did the trial of the 16 involve?
leaders of the left
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including which two major bffs?
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when (m/y)?
august '36
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they were dragged from prison and accused fo what?
working as agents of trotsky to undermine the state
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under severe NKVD pressure what did they do?
confess to crimes they couldn't possibly have committed
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including which significant event?
murdering kirov
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also implicated others in consipracy including?
former leaders of the right
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when was the trial of the seventeen?
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it was a purge of party officials such as which two people?
radek and pyatakov
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they were accused of doign what?
working for trotsky and and foreign governments to undermine soviet economy thru wrecking and sabotage
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but what was their real crime most likely?
criticising five-year plans
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when was the trial of the twenty-one?
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which was the purge of the?
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who committed suicide before he could be brought to trial?
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but what were bukharin and rykov accused of?
forming 'trotskyite-rightist bloc'
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and what did they both do?
confess to it
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was there any hard evidence?
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but what was bukharin's article calleD?
'notes of an economis'
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which made clear what?
some of his criticisms of stlain's policies
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show trials staged with great care to ensure what?
other party members intimidated by ower of state
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how were proceedings relayed to soviet population?
radio + film
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what was unbeknown to public about 'confessions' produced?
under pressure
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how would stalin sometimes attend in person?
@ back of room
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after guilty verdict given what carried out?
death sentence
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show trials had been used before in 1928 in which trial?
shakhty trial
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but back then tuech experts on trial for what?
slowing industrialisation
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when were the purges in the red army?
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what fraction of martials were purged?
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how many out of 16 army commanders purged?
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and how many officers were either shot / imprisoned?
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how many navy admirals were lost?
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what aspect of collectivisation had armed forces been critical of?
demoralisation on peasantry
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because peasantry made up?
majority of soldiers
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why were these criticisms of concern to stalin?
bc growth in importance of army awa increase defence resources 1930s
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why did power of army leaders have to be cut down?
to enforce loyalty
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why did stalin have to purge the secret police?
with purges secret police work and influence was increasing
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who was the first head of the NKVD?
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when was he relplaced?
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with who?
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whose nickname was?
the bloody dwarf (charming, really)
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what phase of purging did he oversee?
most excessive
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ncluding how many of his own personell in the first six months of his leadership?
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what did this phase become known as?
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when did this come to an end?
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he was dismissed
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when was he arrested?
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because stalin needed what?
scapegoat for the purges
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what group of people suffered the most in the purges?
higher levels of the party
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what did stalin go to the trouble of doign while reading lists of those to be purged?
adding names or comments that more were needed
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what system was used for each prty branch?
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what does the sheer scale of purges suggest?
there were other factors at work rather than just stalin
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what two things were purges also sometimes led by?
feeling of justice / personal hatred
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when did stalin's agents assassinate trotsky?
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how and where?
mexico w/ ice pick
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what did stalin's use of terror mark to trotsky?
his betrayal of the Revolution
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that what had replaced a dictatorship of the proletariat?
dictatorship of staln
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the Great Terror was launched at a time of what for the party?
their position seemed secure
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which would seem to indicate what about stlain's use of terror?
for himself > party
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Other cards in this set

Card 2


key instrument was Party Secritariat which did what?


collected information on Pary members that could be used to condemn them as enemies of the peopl

Card 3


what three things did the secret police carry out?


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


they also ran labour camps or?


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


what had lenin's cheka evlolved to?


Preview of the front of card 5
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