USSR ; stalin exercise power over party + state ; purges of '30s

THE INSTRUMENTS OF TERROR
GDNGD
1 of 125
key instrument was Party Secritariat which did what?
collected information on Pary members that could be used to condemn them as enemies of the peopl
2 of 125
what three things did the secret police carry out?
surveillance / arrests / executions
3 of 125
they also ran labour camps or?
gulag
4 of 125
what had lenin's cheka evlolved to?
NKVD
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by which year?
1934
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by this point what had secret police's role become?
increasingly bureaugratic + dom. whole police force
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what was the consequence of purges under lenin?
hand in party card and expelled from party
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CHISTKA OF 1932-35
DGDFG
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which in '32 was a response to launching which two policies?
first five-year plan + collectivisation
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what about these policies concerned party officials?
speed @ which implemented
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and what did they do as they were unhappy with orders from party leadership in moscow?
ignored them
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chistka designed to remove these officials and speed up?
implementation economic policy
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by '35 what % party had been removed from posts?
22%
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what type of process was it essentally?
non-violent
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but showed what was mounting?
opposition to stalin's policies
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OPPOSITION - REAL OR IMAGINED?
GDGDG
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which two people were key purge victims on left of party?
kamzino
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and on right which three?
bukharin / tomsky / rykov
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however, how were purges also extended down to local level?
quotas set by stalin
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detailing what % each party branch should be identified as?
'enemies of the people'
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a stupid accusation was that they were working with?
trotsky
22 of 125
or spying for?
capitalist powers
23 of 125
or plotting to?
assassinate stalin
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one victim accused of meeting with saboteurs wehre?
in hotel that hadn't even been built yet
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this bizarre nature has lead many historians to believe they can only reflect?
stlain's paranoid personality
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what creepy af thing did stalin tell khrushchev?
'i trust nobody, not even myself'
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who was ryutin in 1932?
former party secretary
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who issued a document to who in 1932?
central committee
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which did what?
highly criticised stalin
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what did he accuse stalin of building
personal dictatorship
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and called upon central committee to do what?
remove him from power
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what was a major form of criticism economically?
brutality used to enforce collectivisation
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peasant resistance led to serious unrest in whihc two places?
ukraine + caucasus region
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who raised these concerns specifically?
stalin's wife nadezhda alliluyeva
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who killed herself in which year?
1932
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party officials also critical of which elements of the 5yps?
unrealistic targets
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at what event in 1934 did these criticisms gain strength?
seventeenth party congress
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what was this congress supposed to be?
'congress of victors'
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celebrating successes of?
first five-year plan
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when met who did moderates put pressure on to raise concerns?
kirov
41 of 125
up and coming in which position?
leningrad party secretary
42 of 125
what did they hope to happen bc of this?
pace of change slowed
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what did kirov recieve that matched stalin's?
wave support + standing ovations
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it was in this context of growing criticisms that what big event of the '30s took place?
the great purge
45 of 125
THE MURDER OF KIROV '34
DFFGD
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when (d/m/y)
1st december '34
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and what big thing did this precipate
great purge
48 of 125
who assassinated him?
leonid nikolayev
49 of 125
who was a party member with personal grudge against?
both party and kirov
50 of 125
what did he feel party hadn't done?
appreciated his talents
51 of 125
and there was a rumour going around that?
kirov was having an affair with his wife
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but it was suspicious bc who was kirov w/o @ time of murder?
bodyguard
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and what was nikolayev trained to do?
shoot pistol by NKVD
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so it was suggested murder of kirov was?
carried out by stlain's orders
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official explanation was that the assassin was part of opposition group led by?
kamzino
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and what happened with the arrests?
each led to a further arrest with bigger charges and beef and beef and beef ensued
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when were kamzino arrested and brought to trial (m/y)?
january 1935
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and sentenced to?
long terms imprisonment
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thus murder of kirov was catalyst for?
purgign large sections of party
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THE SHOW TRIALS
DFGDFG
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during '35-6 there was a wave denunciations + arrests of members of which group?
Left Opposition
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party members advised to be vigilant against which ppl?
'enemies of the ppl' (shocker, right?)
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which led to a series of showtrials in which who was accused of what?
former eleading figures in party accused of anti-soviet activities
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victims dealt with in how many waves?
3
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and these were the trial of the?
16 / 17 / 21
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who did the trial of the 16 involve?
leaders of the left
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including which two major bffs?
kamzino
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when (m/y)?
august '36
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they were dragged from prison and accused fo what?
working as agents of trotsky to undermine the state
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under severe NKVD pressure what did they do?
confess to crimes they couldn't possibly have committed
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including which significant event?
murdering kirov
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also implicated others in consipracy including?
former leaders of the right
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when was the trial of the seventeen?
1937
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it was a purge of party officials such as which two people?
radek and pyatakov
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they were accused of doign what?
working for trotsky and and foreign governments to undermine soviet economy thru wrecking and sabotage
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but what was their real crime most likely?
criticising five-year plans
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when was the trial of the twenty-one?
'38
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which was the purge of the?
right
79 of 125
who committed suicide before he could be brought to trial?
tomsky
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but what were bukharin and rykov accused of?
forming 'trotskyite-rightist bloc'
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and what did they both do?
confess to it
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was there any hard evidence?
no
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but what was bukharin's article calleD?
'notes of an economis'
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which made clear what?
some of his criticisms of stlain's policies
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show trials staged with great care to ensure what?
other party members intimidated by ower of state
86 of 125
how were proceedings relayed to soviet population?
radio + film
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what was unbeknown to public about 'confessions' produced?
under pressure
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how would stalin sometimes attend in person?
@ back of room
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after guilty verdict given what carried out?
death sentence
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show trials had been used before in 1928 in which trial?
shakhty trial
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but back then tuech experts on trial for what?
slowing industrialisation
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PURGES WIDEN
DGD
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when were the purges in the red army?
1937-8
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what fraction of martials were purged?
3/5
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how many out of 16 army commanders purged?
14/16
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and how many officers were either shot / imprisoned?
35,000
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how many navy admirals were lost?
ALL OF THEM!!!!!
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what aspect of collectivisation had armed forces been critical of?
demoralisation on peasantry
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because peasantry made up?
majority of soldiers
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why were these criticisms of concern to stalin?
bc growth in importance of army awa increase defence resources 1930s
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why did power of army leaders have to be cut down?
to enforce loyalty
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why did stalin have to purge the secret police?
with purges secret police work and influence was increasing
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who was the first head of the NKVD?
yagoda
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when was he relplaced?
1936
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with who?
yezhov
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whose nickname was?
the bloody dwarf (charming, really)
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what phase of purging did he oversee?
most excessive
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ncluding how many of his own personell in the first six months of his leadership?
3,000
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what did this phase become known as?
yezhovschina
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when did this come to an end?
1938
111 of 125
why?
he was dismissed
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when was he arrested?
1939
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because stalin needed what?
scapegoat for the purges
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what group of people suffered the most in the purges?
higher levels of the party
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what did stalin go to the trouble of doign while reading lists of those to be purged?
adding names or comments that more were needed
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what system was used for each prty branch?
quota
117 of 125
what does the sheer scale of purges suggest?
there were other factors at work rather than just stalin
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what two things were purges also sometimes led by?
feeling of justice / personal hatred
119 of 125
when did stalin's agents assassinate trotsky?
1940
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how and where?
mexico w/ ice pick
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what did stalin's use of terror mark to trotsky?
his betrayal of the Revolution
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that what had replaced a dictatorship of the proletariat?
dictatorship of staln
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the Great Terror was launched at a time of what for the party?
their position seemed secure
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which would seem to indicate what about stlain's use of terror?
for himself > party
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

key instrument was Party Secritariat which did what?

Back

collected information on Pary members that could be used to condemn them as enemies of the peopl

Card 3

Front

what three things did the secret police carry out?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

they also ran labour camps or?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

what had lenin's cheka evlolved to?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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