ussr ; social developments ; role women / fambly ; changing gov attitudes to fambly as social unit

how did more radical b's view family?
outdated institution that deserved to be swept away (u guys know)
1 of 141
in reality complete destruction of traditional family was never what?
serious policy
2 of 141
what were youth groups encouraged to attack?
'capitalist tyranny of parents
3 of 141
and party sections set up to educate women what?
become more assertive and independent
4 of 141
wives encouraged to refuse what
obedience from husbands
5 of 141
led by which bolshevik kollontai what were there calls for
greter sexual freedom for women
6 of 141
she proposed what in place of 'bourgeois marraige'?
'new proletarian moraliy'
7 of 141
sex shouldn't be based on marriage but on what?
union of free love
8 of 141
to young bolsheviks 'free love' was taken to mean what?
casual sex (and i bet they were all male)
9 of 141
and many considered it to be what?
a right to which they were entitled
10 of 141
attitudes shocking to older more traditional bolsheviks including?
11 of 141
and attempts made to impose?
more traditional attitude
12 of 141
other attempts to remould family consisted of encouragement for what in housing blocks
communal space
13 of 141
what did thsi communal living mean?
with several families together break down traditional family unit
14 of 141
some of these ideas influenced what that was drawn up by b's after taking power?
family code
15 of 141
in what year?
16 of 141
17 of 141
kollontai was of the opinion that under socialism?
'the family ceases to be neccessary'
18 of 141
state could take over role of bringing up children / providing social services
19 of 141
what kind of deal was this?
20 of 141
but still measures targeted specifically at who impacted family?
21 of 141
women given rights and freedoms such as rights within?
22 of 141
the family code made what easier?
23 of 141
marriage could be dissolved at whose request?
man or woman;s
24 of 141
without need for what?
grounds e.g adultery / cruelty
25 of 141
what was made legal?
26 of 141
and what was encouraged?
27 of 141
these reforms though driven partly by need for what?
working women in civil war
28 of 141
also attack on which two things through institution of family?
tradition oppression and maltreatment of women
29 of 141
also part of process of reducing whose hold on family life / morality?
russian orthodox church
30 of 141
traditional institution of marrage weakened further in '27 when new marriage law did what?
gave equal status under law to both registered and unredistered marraiges
31 of 141
what were unreistered marraiges?
couples that lived together as family but nor formally registered union with authorities
32 of 141
urban population made use of opportunities to do which two things?
divorce and have abortions
33 of 141
by mid-20s russian divorce rate was highest in?
34 of 141
when was family code revised?
35 of 141
did this make divorce easier or harder?
36 of 141
and led to so-called what divorces?
'postcard divorces'
37 of 141
where partner could do what?
simply notify wife/hubsand of divorce by sending a postcard
38 of 141
by '26 what % of all marriages in moscow led to divorce?
39 of 141
abortions became commonplace in cities reflection of fact what was in short supply?
birth control
40 of 141
in moscow abortions outnumbered live births by what ratio?
41 of 141
break-up of families led to increase of what to concern authorities?
42 of 141
gov put under pressure by critics often from what section of society to revert back to conservative?
poorer sectrs
43 of 141
44 of 141
when was this introduced?
45 of 141
measures introduced to do what?
raise status of marriage
46 of 141
stalin issued series more conservative laws that went some way to do what?
restore importance of traditional fambly
47 of 141
- main changes included:
48 of 141
divorce made more expensive increasing from how many to how many roubles?
4 - 50
49 of 141
what lost legal status?
free marriages
50 of 141
and government stated what was to be taken seriously?
family responsibilities
51 of 141
what was declared illegal?
male homosexuality
52 of 141
what was outlawed in most cases?
53 of 141
apart from when?
when life of mother at risk
54 of 141
what were pregnant women guaranteed?
job security
55 of 141
and right to?
lighter work
56 of 141
maternity leave extended to how many weeks?
57 of 141
what started to reappear in shows after being discouraged as 'bourgeois'?
gold wedding rings
58 of 141
many resources devoted to building which two things?
creches / day-care centres
59 of 141
what happened to number nursery places between '28-'30?
60 of 141
and continued to grow in which economic thing?
2nd 5yp
61 of 141
what was brought in for fathers that didn't pay toward upkeep of children?
2yr prison sentences
62 of 141
how did most local authorities view this?
low priority
63 of 141
64 of 141
in great retreat idea of family as bourgeois concept was replaced by what view?
that family was neccessary unit of socialist society
65 of 141
waht were reasserted?
traditiona values
66 of 141
further strengthening of family yook place when?
july '44
67 of 141
as attempt to raise status of family gov introduced awards for what named type ppl?
68 of 141
for mothers who had how many children?
69 of 141
what was introduced to encourage marraige?
tax on single ppl
70 of 141
what was made more complicated?
71 of 141
and couples could be forced to go where to attempt reconciliation?
district court
72 of 141
73 of 141
what did gov under k promote?
family as social unit
74 of 141
which underpinned much of what in k years?
social stability
75 of 141
women encouraged to do which two things as well as be employed?
care for family / household
76 of 141
by '60 women what % workforce?
77 of 141
who specifically took up some of the burden of wives' housework / childcare / food queues?
grandmas / babushki
78 of 141
soviet society had great respect for who?
the elderly
79 of 141
resulting in many what?
multi-generational fambly units
80 of 141
which helped gov reduce which cost?
supporting the elderly
81 of 141
k years lessened strain placed on family by increasing what?
provision of social benefits like housing / maternity - child care / health care
82 of 141
in this sense family much better supported than in which yrs?
83 of 141
yet what about this provision put pressure on women?
84 of 141
women had to make up gap by doing one o which two things?
providing selves or working for additional income
85 of 141
government aware of inadequacies so did what?
encouraged women to do this
86 of 141
abortion legalised again in which year?
87 of 141
in attempt to do what?
reduce financial strain on fambly
88 of 141
89 of 141
what did b do with k's social policy?
90 of 141
difference was gov's growing awareness fo what?
social problems that weakened fambly
91 of 141
and subsequent attempts to do wa?
addresss them
92 of 141
result was reinforcement of what?
traditional values
93 of 141
particularly concerning?
94 of 141
with new family code in what year?
95 of 141
- by '70s threats to stability took seriously as evidenced by...
96 of 141
declining rate of population growth put extra pressure on economically productive members of family to support who?
old and sick
97 of 141
by '82 growth rate had fallen to what %?
98 of 141
were families in cities usually small or big?
small af bish u dumb
99 of 141
in '70 avg family had how many children?
100 of 141
comppared to what in'59?
101 of 141
birth rate in russia and western ussr barely enough to do what?
replace existing population
102 of 141
in those areas avg family sizes fell to how many children?
103 of 141
why was birth rate in central asian republics higher?
influence of islam
104 of 141
in early '80s there were calls to use what to encourage bigger families?
differentiated family allowances
105 of 141
and party leadership discussed use of 'birth inclusion' to be in what
'81 party programme
106 of 141
proposal to give women what after birth was discussed but not implemented?
several years off work
107 of 141
shortage of what continued to put strain on fambly relationships?
adequate housing
108 of 141
sustained progress in what area improved situation?
provision of housing
109 of 141
and '70s saw trend towawrd what kind of occupancy of apts / flats?
single-family occupancy
110 of 141
however what still remained an issue?
overcrowding in flats
111 of 141
what was a significant factor in undermining the fambly?
112 of 141
playing an important role in high levels of which two things?
divorce and domestic abuse
113 of 141
by '82 the avg soviet adult consimed how many litres of spirits a year?
114 of 141
nearly double figure for which year?
115 of 141
alcohol responsible for causing range of what?
116 of 141
one historian concluded that effects of alcohol plaued rpole in what fraction of all deaths in early '80s?
over 1/4
117 of 141
what did gov seem in response to problem?
unable and unwilling 2 deal
118 of 141
health campaigns warned population of dangers of what?
abusing alcohol
119 of 141
but whatever shops were short of it was rarely what?
cheap vodka
120 of 141
divorce rates remained high with over what fraction marriages ending in divorce?
121 of 141
often consequence of what?
122 of 141
and much of strain within families was lack of what?
father figure
123 of 141
what was responsible for many men growing up fatherless in '50s?
124 of 141
therefore generation lacked what when it was their turn to start family?
role models / examples
125 of 141
sociologists see lack father figure as cause of which 3 things in ussr?
divorce / alcoholism / suicide
126 of 141
when was the brezhnev family code?
127 of 141
in order to combat hasty marriages what did this code require?
couples give 1month notice before marriage takes place
128 of 141
period of notice could be extended if registrar suspected what?
marriage arranged to secure residency permit
129 of 141
restrictions placed on divorce making it illegal to divorce woman in which state?
pregnant / within year of childbirth
130 of 141
131 of 141
soviet governemtn attempts to replace traditional famil with what failed?
collective approach of social family
132 of 141
due in part to inadequacies of what?
government's social policies
133 of 141
but also recognition support mechs provided by family acted as what?
major force for social stability
134 of 141
what in '36 was part of this recognition?
stalin's 'great retreat'
135 of 141
after that soviet gov opted for measures that did what?
supported traditional family
136 of 141
rather than?
replacing with revolutionary alternative
137 of 141
social policy under brezhnev largely what?
continuation of khrushchev
138 of 141
biggest change in growing seriousness of wat?
social problems
139 of 141
that were in part consequence of what?
140 of 141
were gov able to solve this?
141 of 141

Other cards in this set

Card 2


in reality complete destruction of traditional family was never what?


serious policy

Card 3


what were youth groups encouraged to attack?


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


and party sections set up to educate women what?


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


wives encouraged to refuse what


Preview of the front of card 5
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