ussr ; social developments ; education ; growth p/s/h education

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education in tsarist russia had been largely limited to who?
rich
1 of 172
especially at which two levels?
secondary / uni
2 of 172
what schools were aimed at middle class children?
technical schools
3 of 172
but what were two restrictions?
small number usually in big cities
4 of 172
at primary level many schools run by who?
russian orthodox church
5 of 172
and several thousand peasant-run schools but how did many children view school?
not essential part of life
6 of 172
did tsarist gov make school compulsory?
nah not even
7 of 172
and many that went dropped out before finishing how many years?
4
8 of 172
in rural areas what % children failed complete primary education?
88%
9 of 172
what did this make sivet gov progress seem?
even more impressive
10 of 172
THE EXPANSION COMPULSORY EDUCATION
DFGDFG
11 of 172
- under lunachevsky
dfgdfg
12 of 172
in '17 control of education was given to who?
Commissariat of Education
13 of 172
headed by who?
lunachevsky (bc that's not what this section is called or anythign)
14 of 172
and b's launched ambitious campaign to provide what to all children 7-17?
free, universal compulsory education
15 of 172
with simultaneous expansion in what?
higher education
16 of 172
in what year were existing church schools taken over by gov?
'18
17 of 172
and education at p/s level based on what model?
comprehensive
18 of 172
what did that model mean?
schools took children of all abilities and all recieved education
19 of 172
at least until when?
last few years of secondary level provision
20 of 172
why didn't universal compulsory education aim materilaise under lunachevks?y
lack resources caused by civil war
21 of 172
narkompros could only supply one pencil for how many students?
60
22 of 172
shortages left students using what to write wtih?
coal
23 of 172
was teaching pay good?
nope
24 of 172
and teahcers often expected to teach classes of how many students?
40+
25 of 172
as well as devote unpaid time to what?
cleaning school
26 of 172
in '26 avg child attended school for how many years?
2.77
27 of 172
- during '30s
dfgg
28 of 172
was goal of universal free compulsory education achieved?
yes
29 of 172
particularly in which areas?
urban
30 of 172
how many children in education in '29?
14m
31 of 172
and in '31?
20m
32 of 172
most school children failed to continue education beyond when?
first 2yrs 2ndary school
33 of 172
'30s saw education extended to 'who'?
children of 'alien social elements'
34 of 172
those whose parents were from what?
aristocracy / bourgeoisie
35 of 172
why did standard of rural teaching increase in '30s?
teachers deported to remote areas under the great terror
36 of 172
- from '34
dfd
37 of 172
what was established?
basic system of soviet schooling
38 of 172
system general academic schools that offer how many yrs primary edication?
4
39 of 172
each year with own?
class teacher
40 of 172
followed by 3yrs of what?
'incomplete 2ndary education'
41 of 172
where students taught by what kind teachers?
subject
42 of 172
after this period students could do one of which two things?
stay on for 2-3yrs 'complete 2ndary education' / transfer to vocational programme
43 of 172
what did some simply od?
leave school for work
44 of 172
- in '80s
dffd
45 of 172
changes sometimes made?
yes
46 of 172
what did gov change many general academic schools into?
speialist schools
47 of 172
what was demand for admission to these schools like?
high af
48 of 172
schools open to boys and girls but what usually happened w/ girls?
declined w/ age
49 of 172
which children were most likely to gain places?
those that's parents were graduates
50 of 172
but what was also sometimes used by parents?
bribery
51 of 172
OBSTACLES TO EXPANSION
DFGD
52 of 172
what was the key key key obstacle?
lack of resources
53 of 172
in '20s this was largely consequence of what?
civil war
54 of 172
under nep what happened to state spending on schools?
declined
55 of 172
and no's attending schools shrank only recovering when?
end '20s
56 of 172
why did lack resources mean many schools closed in winter?
no heating
57 of 172
was it only economic resources low?
nope
58 of 172
what discouraged many ppl from entering teaching profession?
low wages
59 of 172
as did what attached to '20s teachers?
low status
60 of 172
schools where were especially affected by teacher lack?
rural
61 of 172
as well as?
poor teaching / inadequate facilities
62 of 172
what about getting there?
school transport underfunded
63 of 172
and cost had to be borne by parents until what yr?
'65
64 of 172
in '40 what ws introduced for last few yrs 2ndary school?
low tuition fees
65 of 172
when were these fees withdrawn?
'56
66 of 172
after which no fees required to attend what?
primary or secondary school
67 of 172
but parents expected to pay for what?
equipment / textbooks / uniforms
68 of 172
for poor rural families what could these costsdo?
force children leave school before final yrs education
69 of 172
resources also severely stretched by impact of?
wwii
70 of 172
what happened to large no. teachers?
killed in action
71 of 172
and how many school physically destroyed in fighting?
82,000
72 of 172
many schools worked what kindof day to cope w/ lack classrooms?
two/three shift day
73 of 172
by what year did gov feel could move fwd with further expansion?
'51
74 of 172
5th 5yp was in which years?
'51-'55
75 of 172
set target of implementing compulsory education for how many years?
10
76 of 172
in urban schools this was set for?
'55
77 of 172
and rural?
'60
78 of 172
what did this prove to be?
over-optomistic
79 of 172
and after'58 schools delivered how many year programme compulsory education?
8yrs
80 of 172
which would be ages?
7-15
81 of 172
after which students could do what?
choose next 2yrs / vicatuinal college / workplace
82 of 172
---
---
83 of 172
what about importance of education was hard to overcome?
traditional attitudes
84 of 172
attendence at rural schools often problematic especially @ what time?
harvest time
85 of 172
k concerned about differing levels education experienced by who?
rural vs town children
86 of 172
and implemented what?
prog affirmative action
87 of 172
involved collective farmers being sent where?
collegesfor specialised education
88 of 172
and reserving college places for those that had what?
2yr work exp on collectives
89 of 172
when were these withdrawn?
'64
90 of 172
did they have any impact before then?
nope
91 of 172
even when competing for places @ colleges specialisng in what rural students had lower advantage?
agricultural sciences
92 of 172
what fraction students came frim urban schools?
2/3
93 of 172
in '81 what did kirghizstan headteacher complain to pravda?
his students never turned up for new school term until november
94 of 172
what influences also plaued part in limiting education expansion?
cultural
95 of 172
state education viewed by many from ethnic minorities as vehicle for?
russifiaction
96 of 172
all schoolchildren had to learn what?
russian
97 of 172
even if other subjects taught in what?
ethnic lang
98 of 172
what ethnicity were teachers often?
russian
99 of 172
and often regarded how by minorities?
suspiciously
100 of 172
in muslim areas what ind of teachers commanded v little respect?
woman
101 of 172
cultural attitudes also limited no. who entering higher levels education?
muslim girls
102 of 172
in uzbek republic in '55 girls made up what % school population in final two yrs?
26%
103 of 172
actions of gov where could have negative impact in schooling?
in non-educational policy
104 of 172
what after '28 removed many teachers from village schools?
collectivisation of agriculture
105 of 172
why?
saw as elements of 'old world' to be swept away
106 of 172
many were labelled as what?
'kulaks'
107 of 172
so what happened to them?
deported
108 of 172
trend accellerated during chaos caused by what in '31-'32?
cultural revolution
109 of 172
why was education in many areas brought to standstill?
attack on 'bourgeoisie' elements saw many teachers removed
110 of 172
students keen to get rid of unpopular teachers did what?
informed on them to party officials
111 of 172
result was that some schools ended up with what?
no teachers @ all
112 of 172
attempts 2 expand educatin esp @ 2ndary level were aimed at helping creation of what?
classless society
113 of 172
but changes often limited or inflienced by who?
soviet elite
114 of 172
who prefered system that did what?
separated their children from the masses
115 of 172
academic education remained desired route for all those that whished what?
children to better selves
116 of 172
academic route was open to all but reality was what?
remained dominated by children of white-collar / managerial elite
117 of 172
- adult education
dgdfg
118 of 172
when took power they were aware they were dealing w/ pop where most adults hadn't got what?
secondary education
119 of 172
short courses were offered to teach adults what?
basic literacy / numeracu
120 of 172
and what were offered to those in work?
evening classes
121 of 172
khrushchev had background as former what student?
rabfak
122 of 172
what was rabfak?
school set up after revolution to teach basic literacy / numeracy to those that dropped out
123 of 172
this made him appreciate what?
importance of providing opportunities to those that dropped out @ early age
124 of 172
under his leadership there was expansion in opps to enable others to return to education as?
part-time / correspondence students
125 of 172
by '64 over how many were attending those courses?
2m
126 of 172
by '70s how would adults continue education?
extensive programme adult education
127 of 172
where were diplomas / degrees offered?
vocaional colleges
128 of 172
and this provided useful strategy for updatin what?
workers' skills
129 of 172
as well as providing route ot higher education for those that dd wat?
dropped out 2ndary 2 early
130 of 172
by '80s such courses were sometimes supported by what?
tv / radio programmes
131 of 172
these courses usualy studied part-time when?
evenings
132 of 172
which did what for wokrers?
put additional demands
133 of 172
what kind of courses were also popular?
correspondence
134 of 172
again sign many saw education as way of doing what?
securing more fulfilling job / improving status
135 of 172
EXPANSION HIGHER EDUCATION
FGDFG
136 of 172
under tsarist regime higher education ws what?
preserve of rich
137 of 172
after '17 what did narkompros declare about uni?
open to all
138 of 172
and courses laid out to prepare who for uni?
those w.o formal qualifications
139 of 172
who resisted this programme?
unis
140 of 172
so what happened to higher education?
gov took control
141 of 172
appt what for each institution?
communist rector
142 of 172
move designed to ensure what?
equality of access to higher education
143 of 172
in soviet era higher education consisted of which 2 branches?
universities / colleges higher education + specialist institutes
144 of 172
what did unis provide?
academic / theorietical courses
145 of 172
and the other two taught what?
applied subjects like teaching / agriculture
146 of 172
in '29 how did gov try widen pp in higher education?
drop requirements for entry
147 of 172
and in typical stalin nature introduced what ind of system?
quota (shocker)
148 of 172
whereby what % higher education places had to be allocated to wc origin?
70%
149 of 172
how amny times was this figure reached?
once
150 of 172
and attempts to meet it led to drop out rate of what %?
70%
151 of 172
as many students failed to finish courses why?
ill-prepared
152 of 172
when was system abolished?
'35
153 of 172
end of this put emphasis of higher education back on what?
quality > quantity
154 of 172
and as % wc fell who benefitted?
intelligensia
155 of 172
however opportunities for wc background students remained better than they were in which year?
'28
156 of 172
expansion of what in k era helped widen pp8ion?
higher-education institutions specialising in tech subjects
157 of 172
in '64 how many ppl studying in higher education part-time?
half a million
158 of 172
est many new higher-education colleges specialising in what hepled procesS?
technical subjects
159 of 172
even if what in compatison to more academic remained low?
status
160 of 172
what requirement of khrushchev's for all graduates was unpopular?
had to spend 2yrs working in gov directed position
161 of 172
why?
'to meet nation's needs'
162 of 172
this measure was dropped when?
'64
163 of 172
enormous expansion helped by provisoin of what?
free tuition
164 of 172
with short exception in which years?
'40-'56
165 of 172
and also helped by system of grants to do what?
support students' living costs
166 of 172
however grants were low and could be withdrawn for what?
poor exam performance
167 of 172
most students did what in higher education to cover living costs?
worked part time
168 of 172
soviet gov envisaged education system that would provide opportunities to all in what system?
classless
169 of 172
what goal did it achieve?
mass participation
170 of 172
by early '80s what fraction of population involved in some sort of education?
1/3
171 of 172
reality of nature pp @ different levels however indicated what about education?
reinforcing social distinctions > helping wither away
172 of 172

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Card 2

Front

especially at which two levels?

Back

secondary / uni

Card 3

Front

what schools were aimed at middle class children?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

but what were two restrictions?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

at primary level many schools run by who?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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