ussr ; fall ; nationalism ; growth in ussr

FACTORS ENCOURAGING GROWTH OF NATIONALISM
DFGD
1 of 102
- environmental concerns
dgdg
2 of 102
particularly of interest to those wher?
outlying pats of ussr
3 of 102
why?
damage had often been greatest
4 of 102
soil erosion due to what had damaged central asia?
diversion of rivers
5 of 102
what was a major concern in baltics?
industrial pollution
6 of 102
what did these issues provide for the people?
focal point fir ppl to rally against central moscow gov
7 of 102
- insecurity of local party leaders
gdfgd
8 of 102
often who?
those that felt most threatened by reforms
9 of 102
how had brezhnev's 'trust in cadres' policy left people in these positions?
powerful abd priveliged
10 of 102
often built up what thru corruption?
sizeable power bases and wealth
11 of 102
tempting for them to do what to mntn position?
lend support to popular local concerns
12 of 102
which of local party leaders deeply unpopular?
those viewed moscow's lackeys
13 of 102
- culture and language
dfgdg
14 of 102
in '80s how many russians in ussr?
145m
15 of 102
and how many non-russians?
141m
16 of 102
these other outlying nationalities often had a stronger sense of own identity through what?
native lang / cultural heritage
17 of 102
NAGORNO-KARABAKH
DFGDFG
18 of 102
autonomous region where?
azerbaijan republic
19 of 102
populated largely by ppl of which ethnicity?
armenian
20 of 102
ethnic tensions arose over their desire to do what?
join armenian republic
21 of 102
when did these tensions erupt to violence?
'88
22 of 102
referendum in area organised that turned large majority for?
joining armenia
23 of 102
was this referendum official?
no
24 of 102
and was without consent of?
soviet gov
25 of 102
in anoher indication of growing gov weakness what did armenia do in november?
announce nagorno-karabakh as under thier conrol
26 of 102
as violence cont'd soviet gov had to intervene and did what?
imposed control directly from moscow on region
27 of 102
what did this 'outside interference' do?
enflame situation
28 of 102
affair clearly dem what?
declining power of central gov over outlying republics
29 of 102
reinforced by spread of other ethnic clashes in georgia in what year?
'89
30 of 102
decline in auth also led to tensions where?
moldavia
31 of 102
growth nationalism among maj moldavians alarmed those of what descent?
turkish
32 of 102
why?
feared discrimination + violence
33 of 102
these had effect of?
destabilising control
34 of 102
but destabilising gov as whole?
hmmmm nope
35 of 102
BALTIC REPUBLICS
DGDG
36 of 102
which three republics?
latvia / lithuania / estonia
37 of 102
had been independent states before incorporation into ussr in what yr?
'39
38 of 102
many that still remembered this time viewed soviets as what?
occupying force
39 of 102
republics had higher levels of what than soviet avg?
education
40 of 102
and this had helped promote understanding of?
language / culture / history
41 of 102
among more what dev regions?
economically
42 of 102
between april adn october '88 what were est in all 3?
popular fronts
43 of 102
lead taken by members of intelligensia who formed?
sajudis
44 of 102
but quckly became?
mass orgs
45 of 102
called for protection for?
native language / cultural tradition
46 of 102
but soon demanded?
independence
47 of 102
in lithuania over what % pop etnic lith?
75%
48 of 102
helped giv movement what?
strength + unity
49 of 102
anniversary of what was used to stage mass independence demonstration?
nazi-soviet pacr
50 of 102
when?
aug '89
51 of 102
what had this pact resulted in?
annexation of those 3 republics
52 of 102
what extra extra extra thing did they do to show independence?
formed human chain across the 3 republics
53 of 102
in '90 who won maj of elections to Supreme Soviets in each st8?
popular fronts
54 of 102
what did lithuania declare furst?
that they were an independent state
55 of 102
and other 2?
followed shortly after
56 of 102
was this legal?
nope
57 of 102
what did soviet gov do with declarations of independence?
ignored
58 of 102
and sent pro-soviet communists / red army troops in when?
jan '91
59 of 102
they attempted to take over what?
tv station in vilnius
60 of 102
resulting in @ least how many deaths?
13
61 of 102
seemed to signal start of?
descent to civil war
62 of 102
what did groby deny?
any orders to use force
63 of 102
seems likely action was taken by who?
rogue KGB members
64 of 102
gorby then made statement saying what?
undependence things wouldn't be prevented as long as correct constitutional channels taken
65 of 102
LIMITS OF NATIONALISM
DGDG
66 of 102
only other republic with nationalist demonstrations was?
georgia
67 of 102
in?
'89
68 of 102
others?
little demand
69 of 102
- limited independent experience
gdgdfg
70 of 102
in ukraine what nationalist org was fd?
rukh
71 of 102
little support where?
eastern half republic
72 of 102
- ussr allowed degree autonomous ctrl
dfgdg
73 of 102
accomodation wishes of national ppl thru supporting what in schools?
their own languages
74 of 102
-republics net gainers of soviet eco investments
gdg
75 of 102
esp?
central asian
76 of 102
- loyalty to local / tribal groupings
dfgd
77 of 102
often stronger thn?
national
78 of 102
feature that led to violence between?
diff muslin groups e.g uzbehs + turkmens
79 of 102
what was superficial?
any wider id
80 of 102
- role of ethnic russians
gdgd
81 of 102
nationalist resurgence complicated by no these that didn't live?
in russia
82 of 102
how many russians lived not in russiabut different republics?
60m
83 of 102
referendum held march '91 indicated popular support for?
maintaining soviet union
84 of 102
in all republics apart from?
georgia / baltics
85 of 102
what did gorby launch in '91?
Union Treaty
86 of 102
containing enough concessions for which two things in each republic?
preserving language / customs
87 of 102
plenty of evidence to suggest soviet union could survive w/o?
georgia / baltics
88 of 102
therefore?
not key in fall
89 of 102
ROLE OF RUSSIAN NATIONALISM
DFGDFG
90 of 102
ultimately this that did what?
doomed union
91 of 102
what was yeltsin elected in march '90?
chairman of russian supreme soviet
92 of 102
and from that position able to undermine?
union treaty
93 of 102
under soviet state which two institutions had been fused?
russian and soviet w/ little differentiation
94 of 102
was russian nationaism a popular mass movement?
nope
95 of 102
largely confined to which group?
intelligensia
96 of 102
yeltsin and other reformers happy encourage russian nationalism as method of doing what?
underminingsoviet leader / communist party
97 of 102
for many who considered themselves russian nationalists the last thing they wanted was what?
end to 'greater russian empire'
98 of 102
yeltsin used support for russian nationalism to try do what?
undermine gorby's union treaty
99 of 102
called for much loser arrangement which was?
Commonwealth of Independent tates
100 of 102
made up of
former sovie republics
101 of 102
hat put an end to any hopes of gorby's union treaty ad soviet union?
august coup of '91
102 of 102

Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

- environmental concerns

Back

dgdg

Card 3

Front

particularly of interest to those wher?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

why?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

soil erosion due to what had damaged central asia?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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