ussr ; fall ; gorby + yeltsin ; gorby

where was he seen a hero?
1 of 96
and hated?
in ussr
2 of 96
in west gorby seen as leader with courage to do what?
end cold war
3 of 96
what award did he recieve in '90?
nobel peace prize
4 of 96
also celebrated as leader that?
dismantled repressive system
5 of 96
@ same time despised in ussr why?
failed reformer / destroyer of ussr
6 of 96
7 of 96
- lack vision
8 of 96
shouldn't be assumed gorbyhad clear idea of what?
how to solve eco. problems of ussr
9 of 96
well aware of what?
underlying weakness in economy
10 of 96
career in party helped him appreciate failings where in particular?
11 of 96
much less certain of what tho?
right solution
12 of 96
when did he become gensek?
13 of 96
gorby implemented series unrelated policies to address which two things?
issue productivity / slowdown economicgrowth
14 of 96
what did he do when these failed to have right effect?
experimented even more
15 of 96
- naivety
16 of 96
were most of his policies results intended?
17 of 96
andhe can be criticised for
making naive assumptions about likely impact
18 of 96
was level of resistance in party more or less than expected?
19 of 96
but what experience should have prepared him for this?
how party worked in ussr regions
20 of 96
launched glasnost to encourage reform support where?
outside party
21 of 96
but didn't consider possibility glasnost could do what?
open floodgates for attacs on central position and himself
22 of 96
- powerbase
23 of 96
measures to reduce power of party?
left him at centre weakened (idiot)
24 of 96
attacking his base of power w/o ensuring what?
adequate replacement
25 of 96
position as what was poor substitute?
president of ussr
26 of 96
especially as he refused to do what in '90?
put to popular election
27 of 96
contrast to approach of yeltsin who did what?
used popular support and elections to heighten power against gorby
28 of 96
- expectation
29 of 96
what had effect of raising expectations?
gorby's reforms
30 of 96
but did what?
falied to satisgy
31 of 96
- foreign policy
32 of 96
decision to end b doctrine based on which naive assumption?
it'd allow communist states of eeurope to reform
33 of 96
and become regimes based on?
popular support
34 of 96
hadn't anticipated what?
rapid collapse
35 of 96
nor effect it'd have on?
nationalist groups w/in ussr
36 of 96
- insensitive minoruty handling
37 of 96
his decisions on thse matters harmed relationship between who?
central gov / gov elites in republics
38 of 96
decision to replace who with russian kolbin in kazakhstan?
39 of 96
in what year?
40 of 96
did what?
inflamed tensions
41 of 96
handling of ethinic clashes where was hesitant?
42 of 96
where gov declared st8 of emergency + imposed direct control from moscow when?
november '88
43 of 96
and achieved little more than?
made tensions worse
44 of 96
soviet gov initial response to baltic republics resulted in what?
lack clearstrategy
45 of 96
result was confusion that resulted in deaths while storming what?
tv tower in vilnius in jan '91
46 of 96
- inconsistency
47 of 96
often did what in speeches?
gave mixed messages
48 of 96
one example was his speech when to commemorate anniversary of revolution?
nov '87
49 of 96
used speech to praise stalin as leader while doing wht?
condemning 'real crimes
50 of 96
trying to appeal to who in party?
'die-hard stalinists'
51 of 96
but alienated who?
more liberal reformers
52 of 96
critics of gorby accused him of what?
moving position from supporting reform to reinin it in
53 of 96
this became more obvious in which month?
dec '90
54 of 96
when gorby removed reformer bakatin from position as?
minister of the interior
55 of 96
and replaced him with?
boris pugo the hardliner
56 of 96
this resulted in resination of who?
key reformers like foreign minister
57 of 96
consequence of this ever-changing position?
enemies on both sides
58 of 96
factor in presuading which plotters they needed to take action?
august coup of '91
59 of 96
on reformers crucially made whose co-operation impossible?
gorby / yeltsin
60 of 96
- indecision
61 of 96
during which major event which encouraged him to reform did he hesitate for several days before releasong information?
chernobyl nuclear accident
62 of 96
often made poor choices in which area that did little to strenghten?
63 of 96
whendid yeltsin stand for chairman of the congress of people's deputies for the rsfsr?
may '90
64 of 96
who did gorby support?
alexander vlasov
65 of 96
with decline in soviet power, soviet citizens had to find what for identity?
alternate focal pts
66 of 96
most powerful were?
real / imagined national communities
67 of 96
68 of 96
gorby didn't intend to do what?
bring down communist state or end soviet union
69 of 96
and reforms can be defended as perfectly reasonable attempt to do what?
ensure survival
70 of 96
what can it be seen gorby's error was in trying to undertake political / economic and decolonising reform?
did it all @ same time
71 of 96
impact of all 3 at same time proved what?
too much for state to stand
72 of 96
no denying 3 policies together put strain on gov but they were all?
intrinsically linked
73 of 96
eco reform couldn't progress w/o?
political reform
74 of 96
and this required reduction in power of?
communist party
75 of 96
chief obstacle to further progress
76 of 96
political reform reduced hold of central gov over?
77 of 96
whose elites were threatened by?
changes to economy
78 of 96
whose elites threatened by?
economy changes
79 of 96
to guide su through process required wht kind of leader?
one of immense talent
80 of 96
was gorby intelligent?
81 of 96
though his understanding of what matters was limited?
82 of 96
and charm was used to call upon?
to keep support fro reform programmes
83 of 96
given what this was a difficult challenge he succeeded in for most of time as gensek?
divisions between reformers / conservatives
84 of 96
to his credit that gorby avoided enforcuing using what?
85 of 96
despite pressure to do so during whose declarations of independence?
baltic states
86 of 96
in what year?
87 of 96
serious risk ussr would descend into?
civil war
88 of 96
and gorby not prepared for this even if it meant what?
losing soviet state
89 of 96
chances of success for gorby's reforms undermined by?
unforseen internal factors
90 of 96
soviet war w/ afghan not his doing as brezhnev agreed to invasion in what year?
91 of 96
fall of what prices had significant effect on soviet economy?
world oil prices
92 of 96
which resulted in what being carried out in unfavourable situation?
economic reforms
93 of 96
what us policy kept soviet union pressurised to divert resources from consumer goods / social welfare?
us star wars
94 of 96
gorby's foreign policy brought end to what?
cold war
95 of 96
and this provided opportunity to shift resources from?
96 of 96

Other cards in this set

Card 2


and hated?


in ussr

Card 3


in west gorby seen as leader with courage to do what?


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


what award did he recieve in '90?


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


also celebrated as leader that?


Preview of the front of card 5
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