USSR ; est. 1-party state '17-'24 ; creation 1pst8 + party congress '21

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what did bolsheviks claim desire to set up?
democratic system
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that would rule on behalf of?
people
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by '21 it was clear they really established?
one-party state
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where did most of the bolshevik difficulties to retain power stem from?
the fact that they took power as a minority party
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whose interest did they claim to represent?
proletariat and peasants
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but lacked enough support to lead what kind of revolution?
popular
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and seized power how?
by force
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which two other left-wing groups opposed them?
socialist revolutionaries and mensheviks
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which group were fellow marxists?
mensheviks
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these two groups were denied what by bolsheviks?
share of power
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which other two types of groups opposed the bolsheviks?
right and liberal groups
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who often represented interests of which class?
middle
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and now feared bolshevism would take away what?
businesses
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and deny them what kind of freedoms?
political
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ideology of marxism represented a challenge to what kind of people in russia?
rich and priveliged
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what seemed to be under attack?
the old social order
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which three countries nationalist groups were a threat to the bolsheviks?
ukraine, poland, finland
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because they saw collapse of tsarist regime a chance to do what?
assert independence
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bolsheviks had to do what with these groups to create one-party state?
overtake them
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so, to summarize, what three vague groups were mad at them?
other left-wing / libs + right wing / nationalists
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HOW DID Bs DEAL WITH OTHER LEFT-WING GROUPS?
fgdfg
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what were the two other left-wing groups?
socialist-revolutionaries + mensheviks
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what did these groups hope would happen as they shared many socialist aims?
be given share in new gov
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what did lenin make clear?
there would be no sharing of power
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what happened to calls for coalition?
swiftly rejected by lenin?
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which lead bolshevik for example asked for socialist coalition?
lev kamenev
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what is the world famous peak af trotsky quote about the SRs + mensheviks?
"you have played out your role. go where you belong: to the dustbin of history."
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what was trotsky's relationship to lenin?
closest associate
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why did some SRs join the bolshevik gov in the beginning?
for practical reasons
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but what happened to even this co-operation?
didn't last long
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what event did SRs and mensheviks hope would be a chance to regain initiative?
constituent assembly
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when (m/y)
january 1918
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what was the constituent assembly?
parliament elected by people of russia
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who was heavily criticised for delaying its calling?
kerensky, leader of provisional government
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after october revolution when did lenin agree to hold elections for it?
november 1917
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how was the assembly to be elected?
democratically
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this played to the strenghts of which group?
SRs
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as they were able to mobilise their support among whom?
peasants
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how many seats did bolsheviks gain?
175
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wiht over how many votes
9million
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but which party emerged as the largest single party?
socialist revolutionaries (shocker)
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with how many seats?
410
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and how many votes?
21million
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to use assembly as national parliament would clearly pose threat to what?
continued bolshevik rule
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lenin therefore dissolved assembly after how many meetings?
one
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and condemned it as?
instrument of the bourgeoisie
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in it's place what did lenin use?
the all-russian congress of soviets
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as an instrument of what?
popular support
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a body where who had far more influence?
bolsheviks (shocker)
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what had lenin with this ensured there would be no real forum for?
opposition
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and ignored what?
calls for coalition
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DESTRUCTION OF OTHER POLITICAL PARTIES
DFGDFG
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who did they remove vote from?
'bourgeoisie classes'
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********* opposition parties of what?
reservoir of support
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bolsheviks put restrictions on what making it hard for mensheviks and sr's to use?
newspapers
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who were given small role in bolshevik government in 1917 and 1918?
left-wing SRs
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when did they walk out of government?
march 1918
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meaning they lost?
all influence
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what bolshevik decision did they walk out in protest of?
pull out wwi
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when did bolsheviks rename themselves the communist party?
march 1918
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and by '21 what happened to all other parites?
effectively banned
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in april '21 what did lenin declare about sr/ms?
"the place for the mensheviks and socialist revolutionaries is prison"
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how many mensheviks were arrested in the first three months of 1921?
5,000
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in what years were there further waves of arrests?
'21 and '22
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against which two groups?
SRs and Mensheviks
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but by that point what had happened to them?
ceased to exist as parties
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TREATY OF BREST-LITOVSK
dfgg
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what year?
1918
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why was there vvvv little initial opposition from groups other than other socialists?
bc conservatives were so shocked by october they had to let it sink in
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what event renewed conservative outrage?
lenin ending russian involvement in wwi
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what concluded peace?
treaty of brest-litovsk
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this meant russia got out of war but lost control of which places?
baltic states (lithuania, estonia, latvia), finland, ukraine and parts of caucasus region
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wat did the conservatives view this as?
national humiliation
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especially for which group?
military officers who served in tsar's army
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what did these groups see as the only way to restore pride and reputation of armed forces?
overthrow bolsheviks and reject treaty
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what was the group opposing bolsheviks in the civil war called?
the whites
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treaty also provided them a neccessary stir as promised what?
foreign help
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who were anxious to keep russia in wwi?
britain, france, usa, japan basically the allies
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and were willing to provide which three things for russia to rejion?
arms / money / troops
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what two things did wwi take from the government?
energy and resources
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with little chance of?
military success
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and lenin saw that it was a key factor in what?
downfall of tsar and provgov
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so why did lenin pull out of war?
only way for bolshevik gov to focus on consolidating hold over russia
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and dealing with who?
internal enemies
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RUSSIAN CIVIL WAR '18-'21
SDDGD
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the 'white' opposition to the reds included those that wanted to see return of?
tsar
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also liberals including supporters of?
provisional government
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also military leaders unhappy with?
russia pulling out of wwi
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also national minorities seeking?
independence from russia
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and members of SRs + mensheviks denied what?
share of power
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what were the czech legion?
a group of austro-hungarian army stranded in russia as pows
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and what did they do?
rebel against reds
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they also recieved aid from who during wwi?
allies
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whose forces attacked bolsheviks immediately after october revolution/
general krasnov
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where?
pulkovo heights (near petrograd)
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who won that encounter?
reds
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after what big event did opposition to B's mount?
treaty of brest-litovsk
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resulting in series of?
military campaigns
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not until end of which year that B's beat whites?
1920
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and secured what?
communist rule across the country
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HOW DID B's WIN CIVIL WAR?
DFDGDG
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@ start area directly under B ctrl limited to central core based on where?
moscow
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stretching to where in the north west?
petrograd
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and they were surrounded on all sides by?
whites
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what was red victory largely due to?
better organisation
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organisation in which three key terms?
military / economic / political
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in contrast wat was the only thing uniting whites?
common desire to rid bolsheviks
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what reflected these divisions?
military strategy
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co-operation limited and not helped by what?
long front on which whites fought
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what two things meant allies help wasn't put into good effect?
corruption and inefficiency
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lots of credit for the coherent bolshevik military strategy goes to whom?
leon trotsky
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what title did trotsky become in early 1918?
commissar for war
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red army formed from which two groups?
Red Guard units + pro-B elements of old tsar forces
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what was introduced to increase soldier numbers?
conscription
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and by end of war numbers were?
5million
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Bs also extended government intervention over economy to ensure what?
resources organised and deployed effectively
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through imposition of what economic policy?
War Communism
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what ensured adequate supplies for red army?
large-scale nationalisation of industry
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and how did they get food supplies?
requisitioned from peasants
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experience of civil war encouraged Bs to adopt what kind of system?
highly authoritarian + centrally controlled
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degree active support for bolsheviks especially from who?
workers
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who saw bolsheviks as what?
best guarantors of gains from revolution
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what aspect of bolshevik rule did peasants like in 1917?
Land Decree
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which guaranteed what?
distribution of land in their favour
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thus Bs didn't neglect what dimension of the war?
political
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Bolshevik victory meant what about opposition?
rid any realistic chance of enemies within russia threatening new bolshevik government
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KEY RESULTS OF WAR
DGDGDG
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what did bolshevik state become due to demands of civil war?
highly centralised
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fighting war required quick what from government?
decision-making and direction resources
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power now firmly in hands of goverment aka?
sovnarkom
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and party leadership aka?
politburo
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based?
moscow
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civil war reslted in Bs usin extensive what against opps?
terror
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which set tone for what?
development of party post-civil war
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what kind of values did the civil war seem to reinforce in the population?
militaristic
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TENTH PARTY CONGRESS
DFFG
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when was this held?
march '21
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civi lwar basically done and attention could now be turned towaed what?
divisions within the bolshevik party
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what did civil war see huge growth in?
party membership
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how many members 1917?
300,000
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and 21?
over 730,000
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what did this pose a threat to?
party stability
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to ensure conformity what did lenin put forward the idea of at the 10th party congress?
ban on factions
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knonw as?
'on party unity'
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which was an attempt to impose whose view on party?
leaderhsup
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what was the penalty for breaking this rule?
expulsion from party
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when was the kronstadt mutiny?
1921
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who mutinied?
sailors at a naval base in kronstadt
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against what?
imposition of orders on local soviet from bolsheviks
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their slogan?
'soviets without bolsheviks'
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why was this such a severe shock to regime?
soldiers previously strong supporters
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and what was the major peasant uprising known at?
tambov uprising
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of which years?
1920-21
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sparked by arrival of?
bolshevik units to requisition grain
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what did peasants form?
green army
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took over how many bolshevik troops to put down revolt?
50,000
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Card 2

Front

that would rule on behalf of?

Back

people

Card 3

Front

by '21 it was clear they really established?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

where did most of the bolshevik difficulties to retain power stem from?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

whose interest did they claim to represent?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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