ussr ; economy ; lenin ; nep

WHY?
FGDFG
1 of 83
what did bs hope war communism would help communist ideology be converted to ?
meaningful policy
2 of 83
what led to governemnt replacement with NEP?
reality of situation and eterioration in bolshevik political position
3 of 83
what bad impact did war communism have?
bad economy + unpopular bolsheviks
4 of 83
but positive?
bolsheviks got all neccessary to win war
5 of 83
- economic reasons
gdgd
6 of 83
by end of war heavy industry pordution was at what % of '13 level?
20%
7 of 83
and what had happened in some sectors?
production stopped altogether
8 of 83
what kind fo production had also fallen?
food
9 of 83
to what % of its '13 figure?
48%
10 of 83
and breakdown fo what resulted in widespread famine?
transport and distribution systems
11 of 83
weakened by lack food many russians succumbed to what two diseases?
typhus and smallpox
12 of 83
and over how many died from famine and disaese in '20s?
20million
13 of 83
in addition what had to happen to army soldiers?
resettle into civilian life
14 of 83
clear War Communism wouldn;t be able to cope with whay?
post-war situation
15 of 83
- unpopularity of war communism
dgd
16 of 83
what system was hated by russian population?
system divvying out population
17 of 83
bc size of rations was dependent on what?
social classification given
18 of 83
which two groups recieved most?
red army members and industrial proletariat
19 of 83
who recieved b little or none at all?
bourgeoisie
20 of 83
what in factories caused worker resentment and violence in some cases?
use of managers and return to hierarchal systems
21 of 83
what did many workers was being undermined by increasing dictates of state?
opportunity for self-regulation
22 of 83
- tambov rising
dgdg
23 of 83
in countryside, resentment of war communism was greatest in relation to what?
forcible requisitioning of food and plans to rid mir
24 of 83
what was the mir?
village commune
25 of 83
which had become what since revolution?
genuinely peasant organisation
26 of 83
peasant resentment against gov came to head in series of uprisings in which years?
'20-'21
27 of 83
risings in which 3 important grain areas?
volga basin / north caucasus / western siberia
28 of 83
where was the tambov uprising?
central russia
29 of 83
where peasants reacted violently to what?
troops turning up to requisition grain
30 of 83
revolt only put down after how many red army troops sent in?
50,000
31 of 83
seriousness of these risings did what?
put pressure on gov to change policy
32 of 83
- kronstadt mutiny
gdgd
33 of 83
revolt at naval base outside where
petrograd
34 of 83
why did this mutiny alarm bolsheviks?
group were previously bolsheviks supporters
35 of 83
so couldn't be easily dismissed as?
'counter revolutionaries
36 of 83
what was the mutiny over?
increase power of party and officials at expense of workers
37 of 83
what was its slogan?
'soviets without bolsheviks'
38 of 83
what was lenin's quote about the kronstadt mutiny?
'lit up reality like a flash of lightning
39 of 83
what was the NEP more of a move towards?
mixed economy
40 of 83
where what could emerge in addition to that controlled directly by state?
private sector
41 of 83
KEY FEATURES
GDGDF
42 of 83
when introduce?
'21
43 of 83
in agriculture there was to be an end of?
grain requestitioning
44 of 83
to be replaced by system of?
taxation
45 of 83
allowing peasants to do what with surplus food?
sell @ market for profit
46 of 83
also announced no forced programme of?
collectivisation
47 of 83
without collective farms what would stay as means of peasant self-regulation farming?
the mir
48 of 83
what were these measures clearly?
compromise with peasantry
49 of 83
but knew economy wouldn't survive w/o?
increased food production
50 of 83
in industry NEP did what with small-scale industry?
returned to private hands
51 of 83
though state kept contorl of whihc three things/
heavy industry / transport / banks
52 of 83
which allowed lenin to claim party still held what?
'commanding heights of economy'
53 of 83
in state-owned factories what were used to try raise production?
piecework and bonuses
54 of 83
hwo did some bolsheviks view these techniques?
capitalist
55 of 83
what was reintroduced for wages in '21?
currency
56 of 83
why was this viewed with suspicion by many communists?
re-emergence of capitalism
57 of 83
what seemed a logical way of stopping growing black market?
legalisation private trading
58 of 83
with growth small-scale business and private traders what type of people emerged from NEP?
'nepmen'
59 of 83
from communist standpoint what was nep?
retreat to capitalism
60 of 83
how did lenin and his supporters see NEP?
short term remedy
61 of 83
what did lenin say baout it?
'one step backwards, two steps forwards'
62 of 83
what did NEP introduction coincide with arrest of?
mensheviks
63 of 83
and who were outlawed?
all oher political parties
64 of 83
so what was clear about this exonomic compromise?
didn't extend politically
65 of 83
HOW SUCCESSFUL WAS NEP
GDFG
66 of 83
what type of economy did it result in?
mixed
67 of 83
what issue arose now it was clear the NEP was short term?
when it sould be stopped
68 of 83
what was one key factor in NEP retention?
success
69 of 83
what rose rapidly in first three years NEP?
industrial output
70 of 83
what was much of this due to repairing?
roads and bridges damaged in civil war
71 of 83
and putting what back into production?
existing factories
72 of 83
also helped by better harvests in whic two years?
1922-23
73 of 83
yet much of growth also due to nepmen why?
saw opportunities to set up small businesses and make some money
74 of 83
what two things were popular in partiuclar?
restaurants and market stalls
75 of 83
which were important part of doing what
returning life to cities
76 of 83
however what were the two major corrupt parts of the NEP?
black market flourished + prostitution widespread
77 of 83
and what did gangs of children start doing?
stealing then reselling goods
78 of 83
one major problem was the imbalance of what?
agricultural and industrial goods
79 of 83
what happened as food prices fell?
industrial goods prices rose
80 of 83
what did low grain prices discourage peasants from doing?
growing food for market
81 of 83
in a problem that trotsky called what?
the scissor crisis
82 of 83
when did government step in to regulate prices?
december '23
83 of 83

Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

what did bs hope war communism would help communist ideology be converted to ?

Back

meaningful policy

Card 3

Front

what led to governemnt replacement with NEP?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

what bad impact did war communism have?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

but positive?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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