ussr ; economy ; economic decline

EVIDENCE
FGFG
1 of 76
what was the % growth rate of the '50s?
7%
2 of 76
and the '60s?
5%
3 of 76
and the '70s?
3%
4 of 76
situation often worse than figures suggested bc output was usually expressed in terms of?
value of goods produced
5 of 76
which was based on what?
prices decided by government
6 of 76
therefore production figures could be raised how?
from just bureaucratic decision
7 of 76
what was sacrificed in push for quantity?
quality
8 of 76
many goods of such poor quality that what happened?
left to rot in storage
9 of 76
what was the common grumble that soviet condoms contained?
more rubber than tires
10 of 76
focus on high levels in quantity also hid poor levels of?
productivity
11 of 76
for example agriculture used over what % of the workforce?
25%
12 of 76
what % investment?
26%
13 of 76
and cultivated area larger than that cultivated in which country?
usa
14 of 76
yet produced what fraction of us output?
1/6
15 of 76
what two things were a serious problem in industry?
waste / environmental damage
16 of 76
but neither were a major concern as long as what happened?
production targets met
17 of 76
REASONS FOR DECLINE
DFGDFG
18 of 76
why in this system in particular would it seem appropriate to place blame for decline on party leadership?
bc command economy meant power resides largely @ centre
19 of 76
who in particular was a fitting symbol of failure to act?
brezhnev
20 of 76
brezhnev did entrench bureaucrats but what did he also recognise need for?
limited reforms
21 of 76
- legacy of the stalinist system
fhfhf
22 of 76
what was stalinist system geared toward?
rapid growth in industrial output
23 of 76
to bring about what in the '30s?
rapid industrialisation
24 of 76
and what after wwii?
reconstruction
25 of 76
why was move toward efficiency and wuality more difficult to achieve in stalin perion laid down?
bc system highly centralised planning still there
26 of 76
what kind of bureaucrats were resistant to change?
those whose careers blossomed in this time
27 of 76
- problems inherent in command economy
fghgfgh
28 of 76
what didn't central control encouragein the system?
creativity and initiative
29 of 76
how was experimentation at local level by individual managers viewed?
threat to power of central planners
30 of 76
and what happened to any reforms to encourage decentralisation?
thwarted by party structure
31 of 76
under brezhnev what did leadership prefer to dorather than encourage growth?
keep party officials happy
32 of 76
use of what didn't help identify or solve inefficiency issues
gvernemnt set prices and costs
33 of 76
what did central plannin prove too rigid and inflexible for?
complex modern economy
34 of 76
what couldn't central planners cope with?
changes in demand / circumstances / fashion
35 of 76
e.g plan decided targets for women's bras of each size but what could easily undo this?
change in size of soviet women's *****
36 of 76
what was the result?
yet another shortage
37 of 76
- the 'social contract'
hfhf
38 of 76
contract between who?
government and workforce
39 of 76
built in vailure to grasp issue of?
inefficiency
40 of 76
unstated but understood contract that government would supply what?
employment and reasonable standards of living
41 of 76
in return for what?
wokrer's compliance
42 of 76
made governemnt unwilling to use which ultimate sanction of economic failure?
closure of factories + unemployment
43 of 76
which resulted in large numbers of workers doing whta?
very little of real productive use
44 of 76
what was the soviet worker saying that sums this up?
'we pretend to work and they pretend to pay us'
45 of 76
- lack investment
dfgdf
46 of 76
investment in agriculture increased under which two leaders?
khrushchev and brezhnev
47 of 76
but not enough to adress what?
chronic underfunding from stalin
48 of 76
what three things were in very short supply through socviet period?
storage facilities / rural transport / reliable machinery
49 of 76
- outdated technology
fhfgh
50 of 76
where had soviet successes been?
in areas that were becoming outdated
51 of 76
soviet production of which 4 things exceeded that of the usa by the end of the 1970s?
steel / cement / oil / pig iron
52 of 76
but these were vital elements of an industrial power that were giving way to requirements of what?
post-industrial society
53 of 76
based on what two things?
microchips and computers
54 of 76
by '80s what was ussr struggling to jkeep up wiht?
technological advances made in west
55 of 76
what policy of brezhnev's helped in the '70s?
coupling industries wth scientific research institutions
56 of 76
but couldn't solve increasing use of what?
outdated methods
57 of 76
in recognition of this was deals did sovites make?
those with west to gain access to new technologies
58 of 76
agreements were made with which two car-making companies?
fiat and renault
59 of 76
but impact rarely extended beyond where?
plant in which they were being used
60 of 76
by 1980 what was the state of most soviet tech?
old and physically worn out
61 of 76
- dominance of military-industrial complex
dgdfg
62 of 76
soaked up @ least what % sviet resource?
18%
63 of 76
and employed how many ppl?
30m
64 of 76
out of working population of how many?
150m
65 of 76
what did brezhnev's foreign policy involve increasing?
intervention in developing world
66 of 76
which made what neccessary?
expenditure on arms and defence
67 of 76
these resources could have been switched @ leas tin part to where?
consumer industry and agriculture
68 of 76
- summary
hf
69 of 76
causes of economic decline pre dated which leader but became obvious under their rule?
brezhnev
70 of 76
command economy performed well when focus was on what?
imporving output of limited no. products
71 of 76
far less effective when continued growht depended on what?
gains in quality and efficiency
72 of 76
despite being overworked, central planneds preffered to hold onto a system that gave them what?
pwer and influence
73 of 76
as guaranor of power and priveliges to party what was brezhnev to them
leader they needed and deserved
74 of 76
by late '80 what rendered brezhnev and successors incapable of meaningful reform?
ill-health
75 of 76
this failure to grapple with economy was important factor in what?
fall of soviet union
76 of 76

Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

what was the % growth rate of the '50s?

Back

7%

Card 3

Front

and the '60s?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

and the '70s?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

situation often worse than figures suggested bc output was usually expressed in terms of?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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