ussr ; economy ; economic decline

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what was the % growth rate of the '50s?
2 of 76
and the '60s?
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and the '70s?
4 of 76
situation often worse than figures suggested bc output was usually expressed in terms of?
value of goods produced
5 of 76
which was based on what?
prices decided by government
6 of 76
therefore production figures could be raised how?
from just bureaucratic decision
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what was sacrificed in push for quantity?
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many goods of such poor quality that what happened?
left to rot in storage
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what was the common grumble that soviet condoms contained?
more rubber than tires
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focus on high levels in quantity also hid poor levels of?
11 of 76
for example agriculture used over what % of the workforce?
12 of 76
what % investment?
13 of 76
and cultivated area larger than that cultivated in which country?
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yet produced what fraction of us output?
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what two things were a serious problem in industry?
waste / environmental damage
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but neither were a major concern as long as what happened?
production targets met
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why in this system in particular would it seem appropriate to place blame for decline on party leadership?
bc command economy meant power resides largely @ centre
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who in particular was a fitting symbol of failure to act?
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brezhnev did entrench bureaucrats but what did he also recognise need for?
limited reforms
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- legacy of the stalinist system
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what was stalinist system geared toward?
rapid growth in industrial output
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to bring about what in the '30s?
rapid industrialisation
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and what after wwii?
25 of 76
why was move toward efficiency and wuality more difficult to achieve in stalin perion laid down?
bc system highly centralised planning still there
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what kind of bureaucrats were resistant to change?
those whose careers blossomed in this time
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- problems inherent in command economy
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what didn't central control encouragein the system?
creativity and initiative
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how was experimentation at local level by individual managers viewed?
threat to power of central planners
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and what happened to any reforms to encourage decentralisation?
thwarted by party structure
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under brezhnev what did leadership prefer to dorather than encourage growth?
keep party officials happy
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use of what didn't help identify or solve inefficiency issues
gvernemnt set prices and costs
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what did central plannin prove too rigid and inflexible for?
complex modern economy
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what couldn't central planners cope with?
changes in demand / circumstances / fashion
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e.g plan decided targets for women's bras of each size but what could easily undo this?
change in size of soviet women's *****
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what was the result?
yet another shortage
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- the 'social contract'
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contract between who?
government and workforce
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built in vailure to grasp issue of?
40 of 76
unstated but understood contract that government would supply what?
employment and reasonable standards of living
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in return for what?
wokrer's compliance
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made governemnt unwilling to use which ultimate sanction of economic failure?
closure of factories + unemployment
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which resulted in large numbers of workers doing whta?
very little of real productive use
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what was the soviet worker saying that sums this up?
'we pretend to work and they pretend to pay us'
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- lack investment
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investment in agriculture increased under which two leaders?
khrushchev and brezhnev
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but not enough to adress what?
chronic underfunding from stalin
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what three things were in very short supply through socviet period?
storage facilities / rural transport / reliable machinery
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- outdated technology
50 of 76
where had soviet successes been?
in areas that were becoming outdated
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soviet production of which 4 things exceeded that of the usa by the end of the 1970s?
steel / cement / oil / pig iron
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but these were vital elements of an industrial power that were giving way to requirements of what?
post-industrial society
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based on what two things?
microchips and computers
54 of 76
by '80s what was ussr struggling to jkeep up wiht?
technological advances made in west
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what policy of brezhnev's helped in the '70s?
coupling industries wth scientific research institutions
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but couldn't solve increasing use of what?
outdated methods
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in recognition of this was deals did sovites make?
those with west to gain access to new technologies
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agreements were made with which two car-making companies?
fiat and renault
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but impact rarely extended beyond where?
plant in which they were being used
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by 1980 what was the state of most soviet tech?
old and physically worn out
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- dominance of military-industrial complex
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soaked up @ least what % sviet resource?
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and employed how many ppl?
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out of working population of how many?
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what did brezhnev's foreign policy involve increasing?
intervention in developing world
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which made what neccessary?
expenditure on arms and defence
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these resources could have been switched @ leas tin part to where?
consumer industry and agriculture
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- summary
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causes of economic decline pre dated which leader but became obvious under their rule?
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command economy performed well when focus was on what?
imporving output of limited no. products
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far less effective when continued growht depended on what?
gains in quality and efficiency
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despite being overworked, central planneds preffered to hold onto a system that gave them what?
pwer and influence
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as guaranor of power and priveliges to party what was brezhnev to them
leader they needed and deserved
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by late '80 what rendered brezhnev and successors incapable of meaningful reform?
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this failure to grapple with economy was important factor in what?
fall of soviet union
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Card 2


what was the % growth rate of the '50s?



Card 3


and the '60s?


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Card 4


and the '70s?


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Card 5


situation often worse than figures suggested bc output was usually expressed in terms of?


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