ussr ; economy ; brezhnev

what did khrushchev's dismissal as gensec also mean?
abandonment of many of his hair brained schemes
1 of 86
but apart from this were there any other agricultural changes?
nei
2 of 86
what did reformers in the politburo push for?
further attempts to stimulate activity and innovation and improve productivity
3 of 86
unfortunately who resisted their efforts?
conservatives in gov
4 of 86
who preferred to stick to what stalin established thing?
command economy
5 of 86
in '65 what did new leadership abolish?
sovnarkhozy
6 of 86
and placed more power back to?
centre of planning apparatus
7 of 86
what was given greater power of co-ordination?
gosplan
8 of 86
this system echoed that used by?
stalin
9 of 86
and showed influence layed with who?
conservatives like brezhnev
10 of 86
THE 'KOSYGIN REFORMS'
DFGDG
11 of 86
what year?
'65
12 of 86
what was alexei kosygin's position?
prime minister
13 of 86
launched a series of reforms to unleash what within decision-making process?
creativity
14 of 86
and improve?
productivity
15 of 86
his reforms gave incentives to who?
enterprise managers
16 of 86
to do what?
use resources more productively
17 of 86
also attempted to make central planning take more notice of what?
cost and profit
18 of 86
rather than stalinist approach of?
quantity as success
19 of 86
what were officials attitudes to reform?
hostile and unenthusiastic
20 of 86
what kind of reforms did central planners dislike?
those that made them more accountable for policies they had less control over
21 of 86
who did brezhnev sympathise with?
conservatives in party
22 of 86
therefore did what to reforms?
sabotaged them
23 of 86
and reforms watered down to point they were?
ineffective
24 of 86
were there higher bonuses for output or 'innovation'?
output
25 of 86
so managers preferred to do what?
stay safe and use old methods
26 of 86
what did bonuses for profit encourage some enterprsers to do?
make fewer more expensive-items > mass produce cheaper much needed items
27 of 86
when was kosygin sidelined by brezhnev
'68
28 of 86
and given role in?
foreign affairs
29 of 86
REFORMS UNDER BREZHNEV
DFFGD
30 of 86
further reforms tried under him showing what?
reformers still retained some influence
31 of 86
in '73 what were mjor industrial complexes joined with?
scientific research institutions
32 of 86
in attempt to make sure what?
latest technologu applied to production
33 of 86
what did brezhnev call this?
'alliance of the working class with science'
34 of 86
in what yearwas system of targets further centralised?
'74
35 of 86
new targets attempted to move away from using what?
output figures
36 of 86
and focus more on?
cost and profit
37 of 86
what were these reforms little more than?
tinkering with the system
38 of 86
attempts to adopt new techology limited by wat?
rigid nature of command economy
39 of 86
what did managers fear would happen while new machinery was being installed in factories
losing production
40 of 86
so what usually happened to new equipment?
left to rust
41 of 86
as factory continued to do what
achieve output with old machinery
42 of 86
why was use of cost and profit indicators not always helpful?
bcthey were in a system where prices set by gov
43 of 86
with little reference to?
supply and demand
44 of 86
CONSUMER GOODS AND THE NINTH YEAR PLAN
DFFGD
45 of 86
years of the plan plz?
'71 - '75
46 of 86
what push of khrushchev's was continued by brezhnev?
consumer goods
47 of 86
were goals fulfilled?
no
48 of 86
but still what rose?
living standards
49 of 86
by '80 what % families had tvs?
85%
50 of 86
and what % had washing machines?
70%
51 of 86
but what % families had a car?
9%
52 of 86
though investment in what was high?
public transport
53 of 86
brezhnev convinced 'metal eaters' that resources must be given to where?
consumer industries and agriculture
54 of 86
despite influence of?
military-industrial complex
55 of 86
which remained so powerful it often did what?
took decisions w/o informing other politburo members
56 of 86
what was the military-industrial complex?
term given to powerful bloc created by links between army and sectors of economy involved in military product manufacturing
57 of 86
AGRICULTURE UNDER BREZHNEV
FGFGD
58 of 86
as in industry what happened to khrushchev's economic schemes?
reversed
59 of 86
power was returned to who?
Ministry of Agriculture
60 of 86
and there was deliberate move away from K's approach of?
trying find quick solutions
61 of 86
however what did politburo realise and continue about K's policies?
that agriculture needed heavy investment
62 of 86
what specifically recieved attention?
fertilisers
63 of 86
brezhnev was also prepared to allow bigger role for production where?
peasants' private plots
64 of 86
result of brezhnev's policy was steady rise in what?
overall production
65 of 86
combined with overall decline in?
worker productivity
66 of 86
were agricultural workforce skilled?
no
67 of 86
what was machinery prone todoing?
breaking down
68 of 86
what was the problem with roads?
often impassable
69 of 86
and what happened to much food before reached market?
rotted
70 of 86
one problem was failure of food production to meet what?
demand
71 of 86
result was not famine but what?
shortage foodstuffs available in state shops
72 of 86
what made up the gap?
private production
73 of 86
as peasants sold garden produce where?
private markets
74 of 86
for more or less money
more
75 of 86
in '78 what was price of private food in comparison to state shops?
double
76 of 86
private plots made up what % cultivated area?
1%
77 of 86
but were producing what % produce?
25%
78 of 86
gov experimented ways in which to incerase productivity and what was introduced?
brigade system
79 of 86
which allowed who to form brigades/
peasants on collectives
80 of 86
that could decide what?
how profits were used and distributed
81 of 86
signs that this was successful worried party officials why?
saw it mahy lead to return to family farming
82 of 86
as result what happened to this experiment?
abandoned
83 of 86
was there lots or little change here?
little
84 of 86
and system was dominated by which two things?
high levels investment and inefficiency
85 of 86
key sign failure was continued import of what?
us wheat
86 of 86

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Card 2

Front

but apart from this were there any other agricultural changes?

Back

nei

Card 3

Front

what did reformers in the politburo push for?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

unfortunately who resisted their efforts?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

who preferred to stick to what stalin established thing?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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