ussr ; control of the ppl ; state ctrl mass media nd propaganda

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what three things was ussr mass media characterised by?
nationalisation / restriction information / censorship
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did purpose of control change?
no
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but what did gov have to adapt to?
technology changes
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NEWSPAPERS
FHFGHF
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what did lenin view newspapers as?
mouthpieces of the bourgeoisie
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when did he issue a decree banning all non-socialist newspapers?
novemeber '17
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and by early '20s what happened to all non-bolshevik paperS?
eleminated
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what happenedto printing press?
nationalised
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with access restricted to thse workers working in?
'interests of workers and socialist order'
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who were all editors and journalists employees of?
the government
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and members of which two things?
union of sviet journalists and party
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even with all this every article needed approval from what
glavlit
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which was the?
censorship office
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to ensure what?
press spoke with one voice
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what were the names of the two big daily papers?
pravda (truth) / izvestiya (news)
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pravda was the newspaper of who?
communist party
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and izvestiya paper of?
government
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both used as veichles of?
propaganda
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highlighting what?
achievements of gov + socialism
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what was the guiding principle of soviet press?
party-mindedness
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what ensured high readership?
low prices and wide availability
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copies posted on boards where?
on pavements and workplaces
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enabling people to do what?
read for free
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in absence non-gov papers pravda and izvestiya were what?
mass papers
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what was the circulation of pravda in '83?
10.7million
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what paper was even more popular?
paper of government controlled trade unions
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called?
trud (labour
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with print run of how many?
13.5m
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what was there a special newspaper fixation of in '30s?
prodiction figures related to meeting or exceeding targets of latest econmic plan
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why especially in these ers?
stalin's push to industrialise
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favoured topics also included successful expedidiotns where?
arctic + north russia
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in search of what?
gold and oil
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which were part of what theme that struck chord with soviet pop?
triumph of technology > nature
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who were presented as conquering heroes
aviators that flew over North Pole
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what three things did they represent?
bravery / adventure / pushing back fronteirs
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what two things were prohibited topics / delayed reporting?
plane crashes + natural disasters
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when did a fire go out of control outside moscow?
june '72
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but how long was it until blue haze over city was explained?
one month
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by that time what had happened?
fire had been put out
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more serious disaster where in september '57 was just ignored by presS?
kyshtym
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what exploded?
nuclear waste storagetank
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resulting in how many deaths?
200
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and how many ppl exposed to dangerous radiation levels?
270,000
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soviet public only became suspicious when map readers noticed what had disappeared?
over 30 small villages
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from what years?
'58 - '91
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in absence of disaster acknowledgement it took gov how long to evacuate unsafe areas?
two years (like... rlly bish???)
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who were more likely to publish views critical of authorities?
local newspapers
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but limits were imposed on?
what was permissible
48 of 130
acceptable to print letters criticising whi?
minor bureaucrats
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and complaints about what became increasingly common in '70s?
poor housing
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but what was absolutely 100% not allowed?
criticising party leaders
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MAGAZINES
GDGD
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what did these cater for?
increasing range of interests
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most were aimed at specific groups of?
workers
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such as which three things?
farmers / teachers / soldiers
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others aimed at those with particular?
hobby
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like?
childre sports
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what were four examples of topics that were off limits?
sex / **** / crime / religion
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newspapers often gave coverage of what little attention?
sports
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so gap for sports fans was filled by what?
red sport
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est in?
'24
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and its successor?
sovetskii sport
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after which year?
'46
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what did sovetskii sport gain respect for
accuracy nd honesty in sports coverage
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even if it still had to do what?
carry political coverage praising gov on front page
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RADIO
GDG
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in '17 why was radio easier for bolsheviks to influence?
bc it was relatively new development
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what didn't it have long tradition of?
independent activity
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how did radio broadcast news of the revolution in october '17?
morse code
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what did soviet scientists quickly develop?
voice radio
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and by what year were programmes being broadcast?
'21
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what radio channel featured news and propaganda with little emphasis on music?
the Spoken Newspaper of the Russian Telegraph Agency
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radios were spenny so what did bolsheviks do to get message to people?
install loudspeakers in public places / factories / clubs
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what did group listening also do that ensured everyone got intended message?
collective response
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control of radio was centralised through what?
Commissariat for Posts and Telegraph
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and as gov reccognised importance of this form of communicatin what was given?
resources to ensure rapid development
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by '22 hwta did moscow have?
well-developed broadcasting station
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what % of soviet population were illiterate?
65%
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so why was radio especially useful?
helped soviet government get across to those ppl
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who controlled radio stations?
gov
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and by '20s what did they convey their message alongside to make it more palatable?
classical / light music
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speed of communication through radio was proven invaluable when?
german invasion of '41
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stalin gave radio speech live from where?
red square
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with german forces less than how far from moscow?
50miles
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to commemorate what?
october revolution
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this proved highly effective in reassuring soviet population wht?
not all was lost in war
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most new apartment blocks wired for radio receptions meaning what?
access restricted to gov stations only
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until what year was there only one soviet station?
'64
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under brezhnev this range was extended to how many?
3
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including which radio that played some foreign music?
radio maiak
90 of 130
which was popular with who?
soviet youth
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how did gov try restric access to foreign stations?
mass-producing cheap radios w/ limited reception range
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but also had to rely on what?
jamming foreign broadcasts
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and threatening to arrest those that listened to stations such as which two?
voice of america / bbc
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how often did these threats succeed?
rarely
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but limits on information recieved by population were important in restricting level of what?
public debate
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TELEVISION
GFDFGSD
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by what decade was tv a key method of gov getting message to public?
'50s
98 of 130
in '50 how many tv sets did ussr have?
10,000 sets
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by '58 what was this number?
almost 3m
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what brough tvs into most population price range?
'60s mass production
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even if what failed to keep pace?
availability to demand
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by early '80s most of who had access to tv?
rural population
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gov stations provided mix of what specifically?
news
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with documentaries on?
socialism
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and cultural programmes on which two things?
ballet and classical arts
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programmes for which group?
children
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and what made up considerable proportion of output?
feature films
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how was life under soviet presened?
joyous
109 of 130
however under capitalism rife with?
crime / homelessness / violence
110 of 130
did this spark enthusiasm with population?
nei
111 of 130
by '85 how many tv channels were ther?
2
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and greater emphasis on?
light entertainment
113 of 130
in '70s which soviet singer became a noted and popular celebrity?
eduard khil (trololo)
114 of 130
more positive features included boradcast of what for different regions of ussr?
local programming
115 of 130
often in what language?
local
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what also was on tv that provided change from russian culture imposition on minorities?
folk dancing
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RESULTS
DDFDG
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what did soviet public become used to doing?
reading between the lines
119 of 130
what was news of heart problem of politburo member read as?
fall from favour
120 of 130
along with what other thing?
continued non-appearance in press
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who recieved more news space?
favoured and rising starts of party
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what package did soviet citizens subscribed to soviet encyclopaedia recieve in '53?
package that instructed remove pages on beria and replace with bering sea
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which was first sign of what to public?
beria's arrest
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what about mass media changed?
technology
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but gov ensured what was constatnyl conveyed?
propaganda ag
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alongside propaganda in later years gov came to rely increasingly on output that provided what?
distraction from socialism realities
127 of 130
by '80s what was being produced by state?
video recorders
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making what easier among public?
sharing of info
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but rise of increasigly sophisticated tech e.g computers was likely to provide what?
much more demaning challenge to gov wanting to restrict population's information access
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

did purpose of control change?

Back

no

Card 3

Front

but what did gov have to adapt to?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

NEWSPAPERS

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

what did lenin view newspapers as?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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