ussr ; control of the ppl ; state ctrl mass media nd propaganda

what three things was ussr mass media characterised by?
nationalisation / restriction information / censorship
1 of 130
did purpose of control change?
2 of 130
but what did gov have to adapt to?
technology changes
3 of 130
4 of 130
what did lenin view newspapers as?
mouthpieces of the bourgeoisie
5 of 130
when did he issue a decree banning all non-socialist newspapers?
novemeber '17
6 of 130
and by early '20s what happened to all non-bolshevik paperS?
7 of 130
what happenedto printing press?
8 of 130
with access restricted to thse workers working in?
'interests of workers and socialist order'
9 of 130
who were all editors and journalists employees of?
the government
10 of 130
and members of which two things?
union of sviet journalists and party
11 of 130
even with all this every article needed approval from what
12 of 130
which was the?
censorship office
13 of 130
to ensure what?
press spoke with one voice
14 of 130
what were the names of the two big daily papers?
pravda (truth) / izvestiya (news)
15 of 130
pravda was the newspaper of who?
communist party
16 of 130
and izvestiya paper of?
17 of 130
both used as veichles of?
18 of 130
highlighting what?
achievements of gov + socialism
19 of 130
what was the guiding principle of soviet press?
20 of 130
what ensured high readership?
low prices and wide availability
21 of 130
copies posted on boards where?
on pavements and workplaces
22 of 130
enabling people to do what?
read for free
23 of 130
in absence non-gov papers pravda and izvestiya were what?
mass papers
24 of 130
what was the circulation of pravda in '83?
25 of 130
what paper was even more popular?
paper of government controlled trade unions
26 of 130
trud (labour
27 of 130
with print run of how many?
28 of 130
what was there a special newspaper fixation of in '30s?
prodiction figures related to meeting or exceeding targets of latest econmic plan
29 of 130
why especially in these ers?
stalin's push to industrialise
30 of 130
favoured topics also included successful expedidiotns where?
arctic + north russia
31 of 130
in search of what?
gold and oil
32 of 130
which were part of what theme that struck chord with soviet pop?
triumph of technology > nature
33 of 130
who were presented as conquering heroes
aviators that flew over North Pole
34 of 130
what three things did they represent?
bravery / adventure / pushing back fronteirs
35 of 130
what two things were prohibited topics / delayed reporting?
plane crashes + natural disasters
36 of 130
when did a fire go out of control outside moscow?
june '72
37 of 130
but how long was it until blue haze over city was explained?
one month
38 of 130
by that time what had happened?
fire had been put out
39 of 130
more serious disaster where in september '57 was just ignored by presS?
40 of 130
what exploded?
nuclear waste storagetank
41 of 130
resulting in how many deaths?
42 of 130
and how many ppl exposed to dangerous radiation levels?
43 of 130
soviet public only became suspicious when map readers noticed what had disappeared?
over 30 small villages
44 of 130
from what years?
'58 - '91
45 of 130
in absence of disaster acknowledgement it took gov how long to evacuate unsafe areas?
two years (like... rlly bish???)
46 of 130
who were more likely to publish views critical of authorities?
local newspapers
47 of 130
but limits were imposed on?
what was permissible
48 of 130
acceptable to print letters criticising whi?
minor bureaucrats
49 of 130
and complaints about what became increasingly common in '70s?
poor housing
50 of 130
but what was absolutely 100% not allowed?
criticising party leaders
51 of 130
52 of 130
what did these cater for?
increasing range of interests
53 of 130
most were aimed at specific groups of?
54 of 130
such as which three things?
farmers / teachers / soldiers
55 of 130
others aimed at those with particular?
56 of 130
childre sports
57 of 130
what were four examples of topics that were off limits?
sex / **** / crime / religion
58 of 130
newspapers often gave coverage of what little attention?
59 of 130
so gap for sports fans was filled by what?
red sport
60 of 130
est in?
61 of 130
and its successor?
sovetskii sport
62 of 130
after which year?
63 of 130
what did sovetskii sport gain respect for
accuracy nd honesty in sports coverage
64 of 130
even if it still had to do what?
carry political coverage praising gov on front page
65 of 130
66 of 130
in '17 why was radio easier for bolsheviks to influence?
bc it was relatively new development
67 of 130
what didn't it have long tradition of?
independent activity
68 of 130
how did radio broadcast news of the revolution in october '17?
morse code
69 of 130
what did soviet scientists quickly develop?
voice radio
70 of 130
and by what year were programmes being broadcast?
71 of 130
what radio channel featured news and propaganda with little emphasis on music?
the Spoken Newspaper of the Russian Telegraph Agency
72 of 130
radios were spenny so what did bolsheviks do to get message to people?
install loudspeakers in public places / factories / clubs
73 of 130
what did group listening also do that ensured everyone got intended message?
collective response
74 of 130
control of radio was centralised through what?
Commissariat for Posts and Telegraph
75 of 130
and as gov reccognised importance of this form of communicatin what was given?
resources to ensure rapid development
76 of 130
by '22 hwta did moscow have?
well-developed broadcasting station
77 of 130
what % of soviet population were illiterate?
78 of 130
so why was radio especially useful?
helped soviet government get across to those ppl
79 of 130
who controlled radio stations?
80 of 130
and by '20s what did they convey their message alongside to make it more palatable?
classical / light music
81 of 130
speed of communication through radio was proven invaluable when?
german invasion of '41
82 of 130
stalin gave radio speech live from where?
red square
83 of 130
with german forces less than how far from moscow?
84 of 130
to commemorate what?
october revolution
85 of 130
this proved highly effective in reassuring soviet population wht?
not all was lost in war
86 of 130
most new apartment blocks wired for radio receptions meaning what?
access restricted to gov stations only
87 of 130
until what year was there only one soviet station?
88 of 130
under brezhnev this range was extended to how many?
89 of 130
including which radio that played some foreign music?
radio maiak
90 of 130
which was popular with who?
soviet youth
91 of 130
how did gov try restric access to foreign stations?
mass-producing cheap radios w/ limited reception range
92 of 130
but also had to rely on what?
jamming foreign broadcasts
93 of 130
and threatening to arrest those that listened to stations such as which two?
voice of america / bbc
94 of 130
how often did these threats succeed?
95 of 130
but limits on information recieved by population were important in restricting level of what?
public debate
96 of 130
97 of 130
by what decade was tv a key method of gov getting message to public?
98 of 130
in '50 how many tv sets did ussr have?
10,000 sets
99 of 130
by '58 what was this number?
almost 3m
100 of 130
what brough tvs into most population price range?
'60s mass production
101 of 130
even if what failed to keep pace?
availability to demand
102 of 130
by early '80s most of who had access to tv?
rural population
103 of 130
gov stations provided mix of what specifically?
104 of 130
with documentaries on?
105 of 130
and cultural programmes on which two things?
ballet and classical arts
106 of 130
programmes for which group?
107 of 130
and what made up considerable proportion of output?
feature films
108 of 130
how was life under soviet presened?
109 of 130
however under capitalism rife with?
crime / homelessness / violence
110 of 130
did this spark enthusiasm with population?
111 of 130
by '85 how many tv channels were ther?
112 of 130
and greater emphasis on?
light entertainment
113 of 130
in '70s which soviet singer became a noted and popular celebrity?
eduard khil (trololo)
114 of 130
more positive features included boradcast of what for different regions of ussr?
local programming
115 of 130
often in what language?
116 of 130
what also was on tv that provided change from russian culture imposition on minorities?
folk dancing
117 of 130
118 of 130
what did soviet public become used to doing?
reading between the lines
119 of 130
what was news of heart problem of politburo member read as?
fall from favour
120 of 130
along with what other thing?
continued non-appearance in press
121 of 130
who recieved more news space?
favoured and rising starts of party
122 of 130
what package did soviet citizens subscribed to soviet encyclopaedia recieve in '53?
package that instructed remove pages on beria and replace with bering sea
123 of 130
which was first sign of what to public?
beria's arrest
124 of 130
what about mass media changed?
125 of 130
but gov ensured what was constatnyl conveyed?
propaganda ag
126 of 130
alongside propaganda in later years gov came to rely increasingly on output that provided what?
distraction from socialism realities
127 of 130
by '80s what was being produced by state?
video recorders
128 of 130
making what easier among public?
sharing of info
129 of 130
but rise of increasigly sophisticated tech e.g computers was likely to provide what?
much more demaning challenge to gov wanting to restrict population's information access
130 of 130

Other cards in this set

Card 2


did purpose of control change?



Card 3


but what did gov have to adapt to?


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4




Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


what did lenin view newspapers as?


Preview of the front of card 5
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