ussr ; control of the ppl ; secret police ; yagoda / yezhov / beria

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ROLE OF YAGODA
DHDF
1 of 175
when did he become head of secret police?
'34
2 of 175
what did his keeness to prove loyalty to stalin and ambitious nature result in?
attempt to build up own empire
3 of 175
yagoda's time as head of secret police saw rapid expansion of>
gulag
4 of 175
under lenin what had labour camps been used as?
places for reforming class enemies
5 of 175
in what year were labour camps expanded under gulag?
'30
6 of 175
and transformed into vast system of forced labour to do what?
support industrialisation
7 of 175
yagoda used his influence with stalin to ensure what?
secret police could deal with opps w/o regular court interference
8 of 175
emphasis changed from ideology to what?
economic considerations
9 of 175
what were the camps to provide?
pool of labour for exploiting economic resources of soviet union
10 of 175
in what kind of areas?
those where nobody would live of own free qill
11 of 175
in the labuor camps those were deported to what did many die of?
extreme cold / starvation
12 of 175
a fate often shared by who?
guards and dogs
13 of 175
one of yagoda's achievements was completion of what project?
white sea canal
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how many miles?
141
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which used up to how many gulag labourers?
180,000
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digging how?
by hand > machines
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canal completed under budget in under how many years?
2
18 of 175
at cost of at least how many lives?
10,000
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to cut costs canal was only dug to depth of how many ft?
12
20 of 175
making it what?
useless for most shipping
21 of 175
yagoda's influence increased as what rose?
number political opponents arrested
22 of 175
when great purge began in which year?
'36
23 of 175
given task of arresting party members who were said to have links with what?
alleged trotskyite opposition
24 of 175
recrimination eventually named who?
yagoda himslef
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in which year?
'36
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what was he accused of?
incompetence in safeguarding kirov
27 of 175
and for not doing what?
pursuing opposition with sufficient enthusiasm
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in which year was he removed from office and shot?
''38
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ROLE OF YEZHOV
DFGFG
30 of 175
his enthusiasm for what had brought him under stalin's attention?
personally torturing suspects (sounds like a great guy)
31 of 175
how tall was he?
5ft
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what was his nickname?
'bloody dwarf'
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what was nkvd indulged in under his leadership?
most excessive phase of purges
34 of 175
one of his skills was to frame purges in what term?
ideological
35 of 175
by accusing those arrested of what?
political opposition to communism and the state
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what process did yezhov speed up?
that of arrest / trial / imprisonment
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how many people were there in a troika (court)?
3
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one of whom was what?
regional NKVD boss
39 of 175
and what did they do?
deal with cases
40 of 175
in september '37, karelian troika processed how many prisoners a day?
231
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what did he consider gulag to be?
underused (yes, he was insane)
42 of 175
and number of inmates rose considerably as well as what?
deaths in camps
43 of 175
yezhov issued orders that required camp to meet quotas of what?
executions of prisoners
44 of 175
when?
july '37
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what happened to nkvd officers that carried out executions?
awarded medals
46 of 175
but then what happened to them a few months later?
executed themselves to meet quotas
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what happened to surveillance of general public under knvd?
increased
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what kind of police officers were used?
plain clothed
49 of 175
as well as system of what from general public?
informers
50 of 175
considerable usewas made of what to condemn ppl for anti-soviet activity?
soviet criminal code
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what happened to number of detectives recruited to NKVD?
quadrupled
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and extra staff employed to do what?
torture suspects
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under yezhov the group of ppl considered opponents was widened to include what?
anyone who didn't show sufficient commitment to revolutionary cause
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what was the clear message to soviet population?
stepping out of line was serious threat to freedom
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during leadership of him what happened within nkvd?
even that membership was purged
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yezhov once attended a politburo meeting in what state?
with bloodied cuffs from torturing enemies of the revolution
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by what year was stalin growing concerned?
'38
58 of 175
why?
thought heavy terror was demoralising population @ time of war
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why did yezhov's health start to suffer?
frenetic work and alcoholism
60 of 175
when was he dismissed?
'38
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what did stalin accuse him of being responsible for?
purge excesses
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ROLE OF BERIA
DGDFGD
63 of 175
which of his qualities brought him under stalin's notice?
organisational skills / ******* gross sexual grossness / energy
64 of 175
even though stalin was irritated by what?
his excessive flattery
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how did beria undermine yezhov?
briefing stalin withcriticisms of yezhov;s work to secyre his removal
66 of 175
how was beria's appt viewed by general population?
some relief
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beira presented to them as unlce-figure that would do waht?
reform excessive nkvd
68 of 175
what did beria feel indiscriminate arrests were?
waste of manpower + inefficient
69 of 175
wha tdid he introduce more conventional methods of?
police procedure
70 of 175
and public trials only held when?
solid evidence was available
71 of 175
surveillence was continued but only led to arrests when what?
evidence found
72 of 175
one of beria's achievements was to oversee murder of which high profile figure?
trorsky
73 of 175
where and when?
mexico '40
74 of 175
focus on productivity also extended to what?
gulag
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what did beria want to make gulag?
profitablepart of soviet economy
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in '39 what was provided for inmates?
food rations
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not due to humanitarian concerns but why?
to get maximum work out of prisoners
78 of 175
beria instrumental in using what of prisoners or special tasks?
technical skills
79 of 175
as result how many scientists put to work on various projects
1000
80 of 175
that did what according to beria's boasts?
created many new pieces military hardware
81 of 175
though claim dubious among scientists were tupolev and korolev who played essential part in what?
development of soviet space programme
82 of 175
what was cancelled so prisoners' expertise could continue to be used?
early release from camps
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measures resulted in growth gualg economy from how many roubles in '37?
2m
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to how many in '40?
4.5m
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by early '50s gulag was major contributor to what?
soviet economy
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over wha tfraction of country's gold was produced through gulag?
1/3
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CHANGES TO ROLE OF SECRET POLICE DURING WWII
DGDFG
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in '41 they were given some supervision over who?
red army
89 of 175
with responsibility for which two things?
monitoring disloyalty + dealing w/ desertions
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nkvd given control over deportations of who?
national minorities whose loyalty to state was considered suspect
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which three groups did this contain?
crimean tartars / volga germans / chechens
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who conducted this particularly harsh forcible removal?
three-person troikas
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by '43 what did red army start doin?
overrun areas previously captured by germans
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in these areas what did beria set up to root out traitors / deserters / cowards
special departments
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what happened to anyone suspected of co-operating with germans?
shot or deported
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what department dealt with syspected spies?
smersh
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an acronym based on the phrase?
'death to spies'
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which was involved in which big massacre?
katyn massacre
99 of 175
where they murdered more than how many polish officers?
4,000
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in what year?
'43
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even soviet troops that had done what were considered suspect?
those that escaped german capture
102 of 175
which order treated all soviet troops that escaped german capture suspect?
order 270
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where were returnin pows automatically held?
detention camps
104 of 175
run by/
secret police
105 of 175
how were some used to clear minefields?
walking through areas where mines had been laid
106 of 175
POST-WAR RIVALRY
DGDFG
107 of 175
what did beria see the politburo rivalry a chance to do?
start more purges to gain stalin's favour
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what was the target of this purge?
leningrad party
109 of 175
in '49 over how many members were purged?
2,000
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what happened to them?
imprisoned or exiled
111 of 175
what may stalin's next set of purges as well have been?
warning to beria
112 of 175
when was the mingrelian affair
'51
113 of 175
which involved purge of the party where?
georgia
114 of 175
purge seemed to be targeted at ppl from what ethnicity?
mingrelian
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who else belonged to this group?
beria
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in '53 evidence stalin was planning another purge by the name of what before he died?
the 'doctors plot'
117 of 175
also notable in that most of the accused were?
jewish
118 of 175
which means may have been prelude to jew purge but most likely?
first step toward elimination of beria and other leadership
119 of 175
what three things did beria control at the time of stalin's death?
secret police / spies / gulag and industry links
120 of 175
his enormous power was reason politburo members removed him when?
june '53
121 of 175
lead taken by K who beria had underestimated and called what
'moon-faced idiot'
122 of 175
IMPACT OF BERIA REMOVAL ON USE OF TERROR
DGDFG
123 of 175
with his removal, politburo moved quickly to limit wht about the secret police?
independence
124 of 175
brough firmly under whose control?
party
125 of 175
and answered to whihch new organisation?
KGB
126 of 175
what did khrushchev dismantle?
gulag
127 of 175
and forced labour never again did what?
played part in soviet economy
128 of 175
what happened to lubyanka building?
ceased to be a prison
129 of 175
who was the last person to be held there 'nd why?
gary powers bc the u-2 spy plane
130 of 175
in what year?
'60
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RESPONSIBILITY FOR TERROR
DGFGGDF
132 of 175
what was a common saying of gulag inmates about stlain?
if only he knew about their situation he'd get them out of it
133 of 175
who created the gulag system?
lenin
134 of 175
but growth was a consequence of?
stlain's actions since '28
135 of 175
- evidence stalin's responsibility
whddgdfg
136 of 175
what did he personally sign?
many death warrants
137 of 175
and often added comments on what?
lists of those arrested
138 of 175
asking henchmen or himself doing what?
add more names or choosing himself
139 of 175
what did stalin give nkvd just like 5yp?
quotas to meet
140 of 175
if targets not met what were local nkvd officers expcted to do?
add own name to list
141 of 175
what did rapid process collectivisation require?
kulaks and opposition to be swept away
142 of 175
unrealists 5yp quotas put enormous pressure on officials to do what?
explain why not met
143 of 175
often essential for managers own survival to label ppl what?
saboteurs
144 of 175
historians have suggested expansion of the gulag in the '30s was a response to which economic demand?
slave labour to ensure 5yps met
145 of 175
forced labour key part of stalin's desire to do what?
build prestige projects
146 of 175
perhaps no koinkydink that some of ussr top geologists arrested on eve of?
camp set up to exploit oil reserves in komi republic
147 of 175
who set the paramaters for purges?
stalin
148 of 175
death of kirov was used to do which two things?
start great purge / dismiss yezhov
149 of 175
death of stalin resulted in which two thing?
dismantling of gulag and reduced terror
150 of 175
many aspects of terrir reflected what about stlain?
paranoid personality
151 of 175
when was kirov's assassinatin?
'34
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when was the doctors plot?
'53
153 of 175
which seemed to stem from which of stalin's views?
anri-semitic
154 of 175
coupled with suspicions of what?
kremlin doctors trying to kill him
155 of 175
- evidence for yagoda / yezhov / beria just doing his bidding
dfgfdg
156 of 175
yagoda yehov and beria all became secret police leaders as result of what?
willingness to carry out stalin's bidding
157 of 175
all men had what kind of tendencies?
sadistic *to the tune of timothee chalamet's statistics*
158 of 175
and little moral conscience about what?
torture
159 of 175
owed their position to stalin and he also did what?
dismissed the first two
160 of 175
none of the three had much impact on what?
targets of terror
161 of 175
decided by stalin and seemed to stem from what?
his personality and policies
162 of 175
yet all three took opportunity to add what to lists?
names of those who stood in their way
163 of 175
yezhov advanced his career by undermining who?
yagoda
164 of 175
and beria also undermined who?
yezhov
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where did nkvd leaders have influence?
implementation of terror + gulag operation
166 of 175
under yagoda gulag expanded great;y but struggled to cope with what?
vast increase of inmated
167 of 175
resulting from?
collectivisations
168 of 175
under yezhov process of terror speeded up partly in response to what?
sheer scaleof task
169 of 175
excessive use of terror was partly driven by what of yezhov?
his sadistic frenetic personality
170 of 175
beria oversaw change in gulag to greater emphasis on?
productivity
171 of 175
stlain enjoyed making out others to be his what?
'bad men'
172 of 175
he once introduced beria to president roosevelt as what?
'our himmler'
173 of 175
referencing who?
hitler's head of the **
174 of 175
what did historian applebaum have to say about wehre power really lay?
'stalin selected the victims - and his subordinates leapt at the opportunity to obey him'
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when did he become head of secret police?

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'34

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what did his keeness to prove loyalty to stalin and ambitious nature result in?

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yagoda's time as head of secret police saw rapid expansion of>

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under lenin what had labour camps been used as?

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