ussr ; control of the ppl ; religion

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RUSSIAN ORTHODOX CHURCH
DFHHHFGHF
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how did bolsheviks see religion and its institutions?
threat to imposition of socialist ideology
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to bolsheviks what did church provide?
alternative ideology to marxism
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christian emphasis on rights of the individual contrasted greatly with what?
collective mentality of socialism
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bolsheviks were atheists who dismissed religion as?
superstitious nonsense
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who in particular did lenin have specific dislike for?
prieses
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and this informed what?
pace and tone of bolshevik policy
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what was ROC closely tied to?
tsar and old order
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who had been the head of the ROC?
tsar
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and how did majority of population take word of spiritual teachers?
v seriously
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what did marx call religion?
'opiumof the masses'
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- measures to severely limit power and influence of religion
dgfhfdgq
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when was the Decree on Freedom of Conscience?
1918
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what did it separate?
ROC and state
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and church lost what?
priveliged status
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what was church deprived of w/o compensation?
land
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and what was outlawed?
publications
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and all of what outside home was banned?
religious education
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what happened to large number of churches?
destroyed or repurposed
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what did government close all of?
monasteries
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and by end of '18 who was under house arrest?
head of church patriarch tikhon
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in famine of civil war what increased?
attacks on church
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and what happened to valuable objects?
seized to help pay for food supplies
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who were deprived of vote?
priests
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and denied what during civil war?
rations
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and suffered as victims of what
red terror ('21-'22)
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by '23 how many bishops had been killed?
28
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and over how many priests?
1000
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in '29 what was established?
league of militant godless
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as part of what against religion?
propaganda campaign
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what did it take peasants on and what did it do with them?
plane rides and showeed them heaven wasn't in the sky
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what were ridiculed?
weeping icons
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with demonstrations of how they could be operated by what?
rubber squeezers
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campaign to replace baptisms with what?
'octoberings'
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new names such as which two were encouraged?
revolyutsiya + ninel (lenin backwards bc they were just that creative)
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scale of attacks led many church leaders to do what?
seek accomodation in regime
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when did patriarch tikhon die?
'25
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which oppened way for metropolitan sergei of moscow to do what?
call on church membs to support gov
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what did most do?
refuse
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but what did new tone result in?
less strident attacks by gov on church
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by end of '30 what fraction of al vilage churches were either not operating or destroyed?
4/5
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did actions succeed in stamping out church influence?
nipe
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survey of peasantry in mid'20s revealed what % still christian?
55%
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CHANGES UNDER STALIN
HFH
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campaigns of religious oppression accompanied stalin's policies of?
collectivisation
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what happened to most churches?
closed
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and village priests labelled as what and what happened?
'kulaks' and deported
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further attacks followed in which years and which event?
great purge '36-'39
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and by '39 how many out of 163 bishops were still @ liberty?
12
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not until what event in which year that policy changed?
german invasion of '41
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what did church support?
war effort
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which prompted what?
accomodation between church and state
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stalin took more liberal approach and what reesablished?
patriarchate
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and what happened to some churches?
reopened
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and new seminaries set up to do what?
train priests
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some acknowledgement that religion could do what in wartime?
sustain morale
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KHRUSHCHEV ANTI-RELIGIOUS CAMPAIGN
DGDG
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he pursued a programme of anti-religion similary to what?
stalin's pre-wwii
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when did he launch this campaign?
'58
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that lasted until?
dismissal in '64
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what was role of priest limited to?
spiritual advice only
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parish councils placed under whose control?
party officials
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who often took action to dismiss priests on what grounds?
no longer needed
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within 4 years how many of existing churches were closed?
10,000
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surviving priests were often harrased by who?
secret police
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which two religions also suffered severe restrictions on right to congregate / worship?
baptists / jews
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BREZHNEV'S POLICIES TOWARD CHURHC
DFDG
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with k's fall what happened to active persecution of church?
declined
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brezhnev aware stories of religious persecution didn't go down well where?
west
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and had damaging impact on what?
foregin policy attempts
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brezhnev therefore happy to do what?
allow church to act within defined limits
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what did governemnt use to monitor religious services?
Council of Religious Affairs
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and clergy were classified accorgind to what?
loyalty to socialism
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what was church expected to stick to?
formal church services
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and support?
soviet policies
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such as help for?
poor
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what did group of unhappy orthodox priests set up?
christian committee for defence of believers' rights
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to draw attention to what?
human rights abuses
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in what year?
'76
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who was the leader?
father yakunin
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what did brezhnev do to him?
give him 5yrs imprisonment
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for what?
anti-soviet propaganda
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in what year?
'79
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what happened to religious groups like jews and baptists who were more likely to be critcal?
terated w/ less tolerance
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evangelical activities of what were restricted?
preaching to gain converts
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what were broken up?
prayer meetings
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and what happened to members?
dismissed from jobs
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nonetheless who continued to meet?
unregistered congregations
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and they also did what?
distributed prayerbooks
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INFLUENCE OF ISLAM
DFGDFG
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what were majority of population members of?
ROC
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but where contained sizeable muslim community?
central asian regions of ussr
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why was dealing with islam more difficult for bolsheviks?
more ingrained into everyday life and intergrated in community
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b's feared islam links to national minorities within ussr mihgt threaten what?
social cohesion of state
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bolshevis initially made attempts to reduce influence of what courts?
shariah law
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along with which two places?
schools and mulahs
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not until when that government felt confident enough to attack institutions and rituals?
mid-'20s
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what about land was prohibited?
religious endowments
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making what more difficult?
upkeep of mosques
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what happened to most mosques?
closed down
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what were phased out?
shariah courts
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mullahs were removed as part of what?
collectivisation process
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often forced to publicly admit to being what?
'decievers of the ppl'
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what was launched on international women's day?
campaign against veiling women
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in which year?
'27
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when who took part in ceremony?
bare women
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what did they do with their viels?
threw on a bonfire
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why was ramadam condemned?
interfered with work discipline
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what was prohibited on grounds of subjection of women?
polygamy
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measures resulted in violent revolts in which years?
'28-'29
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during wihch who were particularly active?
chechens of south russia
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unrest only used through use of ?
armed forces
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what did many muslims do in public?
accept state
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while in private?
retain islamic customs
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PSYCH TEST: what level of conformity is this?
compliance
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others joined underground brotherhoods known as?
tariqat
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to continue?
fight fro islamic rights
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RESULTS
DFHDF
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impact of attacks was to do what?
reduce those practicing
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survey in '80s found what % population believed in god?
25%
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far fewer did what?
actually were engaged in worship
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for those who remained faithful what did government actions do?
strenghten their faith even more (oh great)
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underground network support often did what?
provided sustenance to those that's needs not met by gov
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Card 2

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how did bolsheviks see religion and its institutions?

Back

threat to imposition of socialist ideology

Card 3

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to bolsheviks what did church provide?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

christian emphasis on rights of the individual contrasted greatly with what?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

bolsheviks were atheists who dismissed religion as?

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