ussr ; control of the ppl ; culture + arts ; lenin / stalin

BOLSHEVIK ATTITUDES TOWARD ARTS AND POPCULTURE
DFG
1 of 135
in '17 what were bolsheviks divided over?
importance and direction of cultural policy
2 of 135
lenin viewed culture as vital but subordinate to what?
class conflict and retention of power
3 of 135
what were lenin's personal cultural tastes like?
classic and conservative
4 of 135
which groups did he want party to keep on side as much as possible?
high calibre writers and artists
5 of 135
one important development he implemented after seizure of power was to create what?
Commissariat of Enlightenment
6 of 135
a ministry of culture to do what?
support and encourage artists
7 of 135
development welcomed by artists ars replaced what?
heavy restrictions and censorship of old regime
8 of 135
this encouraged many artists to do what?
work with new regime
9 of 135
lenin prepared to accommodate those that were not communist but?
sympathetic to ideals of revolution
10 of 135
what did trotsky label these artists as?
fellow travellers
11 of 135
were all bolsheviks happy with this approach?
nah not even
12 of 135
PROLEKULT
DFGD
13 of 135
who promoted this strand of cultural policy?
bogdanov + lunacharsky
14 of 135
what was lunacharsky's role?
head commissariat of enlightenment
15 of 135
what did bogdanov argue state needed to use to create own prolekult?
new tech
16 of 135
he felt new group of what should be assembles?
proletarian artists
17 of 135
whose art was to serve what two purposes?
social and political
18 of 135
key strand of this group came to be known as what?
constructivists
19 of 135
those who wished to create new prole cultture based on what?
the worker and industrial tech
20 of 135
what were workers and peasants encouraged to do?
produce own culture
21 of 135
such as?
write stories / put on theatre productions
22 of 135
magazine smithy est. that contained what?
poems about machines / factories
23 of 135
gov also made use of what group events to develop new socialist culture?
festivals
24 of 135
and what were sometimes incentive to turn up/
extra food rations
25 of 135
how was the anniversary of the revolution in '20 celebrated?
re-enactment of the storming of the winter palace
26 of 135
using over how many ppl?
8,000
27 of 135
parades through where were organised?
red square
28 of 135
and directed by party to etent they were examples of what?
street theatre
29 of 135
thus achievements of who were reinforced through arts?
workers and party
30 of 135
prolekult was a deliberate and direct challenge to what?
high culture
31 of 135
and becamepopular for a time but by early '20s why were gov concerned with it?
too many viewpoints being iexpressed
32 of 135
and started to do what to it?
impose restrictions
33 of 135
AVANT-GARDE
DGDFG
34 of 135
avant-garde relates to period of experimentation after what event?
wwi
35 of 135
the influence of which two schools of art were combined?
modernism and futurism
36 of 135
to convey visions of what
new futuristic world
37 of 135
mayakovsky, the talented poet and playwright moved to what kind of medium?
poster art
38 of 135
who set to work doing what for government?
producing slogans and posters
39 of 135
despite being propaganda his work was also?
genuinely innovative
40 of 135
malevich and kandinsky represent fellow travellers in which medium?
painting and sculptures
41 of 135
why unsuprising soviets put such emphasis on visual arts?
large proportion country illiterate
42 of 135
influence of futurists on science fiction however did have impact on what?
popular reading
43 of 135
new trends in popular music saw first appearance of what in russia with mixed reviews?
jazz
44 of 135
in theatre meyerhold led the movement with which play in '18?
mystery bouffe
45 of 135
which was fantasy based on what?
workers defeating exploiters
46 of 135
why cancelled after one performance?
too confusing to audiences
47 of 135
what relatively new development was open to experimentation too?
cinema
48 of 135
and who was one of most foremost innovators in medium?
sergei einstein
49 of 135
what movie did he make in '24?
strike
50 of 135
and battleship potemkin was to be released when?
'25
51 of 135
what did lenin state importance of cinema for?
tool promoting political messages
52 of 135
but often it was what?
too clever for audience
53 of 135
avant-garde was not answer to what thingthey were attempting to do?
mould common people's beliefs and values
54 of 135
CULTURAL REVOLUTION
DGF
55 of 135
what did cultural revolution become part of attempt to sweep away?
old 'bourgeois; elements in society
56 of 135
in what time?
late '20s
57 of 135
along with whcih two economic policies?
collectivisation and 5yps
58 of 135
this entailed full-scale assault on who?
traditional writers and artists
59 of 135
what was to happen to those fellow travellers tolerated under lenin?
removed and replaced by those that were unquestionably loyal to socialis
60 of 135
what were young enthusiastic komsomol members encouraged to do>
root out and attack 'bourgeois' elements
61 of 135
what did they do in productions of suspect plays?
boo and whistle
62 of 135
in literature what organisation made increasingly btitter attacks on fellow travellers?
Russian Association of Proletarian Writers(RAPP)
63 of 135
and condemned what about writers that adopted new experimental techniques?
decadent individualism
64 of 135
what movement's ideas was RAPP inspired by?
prolekult
65 of 135
and they preferred works that stressed what?
achievements of workers
66 of 135
which became termed the?
cult of the 'little man'
67 of 135
what novel was a good example of this?
kataev's time forward ('32)
68 of 135
recounted the story of record breaking shift where?
******* magnitogorsk
69 of 135
what did this, soon to become common and overused theme, also become known as?
'boy meets girl meets tractor'
70 of 135
tied in with what economic policy?
5yps
71 of 135
but how did it soom lose popularity?
same theme repetitively used
72 of 135
yet rapp did it's best to encourage cultural activities in factories such as wgat?
reading and drama groups
73 of 135
successful?
mmm kinda
74 of 135
SOCIALIST REALISM
DFGFDG
75 of 135
in what year did party leadership announce RAPP would be closed down?
'32
76 of 135
and reokaced by what?
Union of Soviet Writers
77 of 135
in effect brinding what to an end?
cultural revolution
78 of 135
stalin recognised importance of wriers and artists calling them what?
'engineers of human souls'
79 of 135
now put to use in pursuit of what?
'socialist realism'
80 of 135
term used to describe art that presented what?
idealised images of life under socialism
81 of 135
to inspire population towards what?
it's achievement
82 of 135
used to convince population that in '35 stalin's statement of what was true?
'life has become more joyous'
83 of 135
union of soviet writers was to police movement doing what?
rewarding those that complied and restricting those that didn't
84 of 135
to some writers like zoshchenko,they complied but what suffered?
quality of work
85 of 135
others refused to work under conditions and did what?
emigrated (they could do that???)
86 of 135
novelist boris pasternak and poet anna akhamatova did what?
gave up writing and opted for 'genre of silence'
87 of 135
however what happened to pasternak's novels?
smuggled abroad and publsihed
88 of 135
what did mayakovsky the poster guy do?
commit suicide
89 of 135
and others died where?
labour camps
90 of 135
- art under socialist realism
dfgd
91 of 135
there was to be no what under socialist realism unlike avant-garde?
experimentation with form
92 of 135
what kinds of art were rejected?
avant-garde abstract
93 of 135
art harnessed under regime to protekh what?
images of life under 5yps
94 of 135
often presented through images of what?
worker and peasant striving for socialism
95 of 135
stalin told artists they should make what clear?
who was responsible for achievements of socialims
96 of 135
this often resulted in fusion of socialist realism with what?
stalin's cult of personality
97 of 135
- literature under socialist realism
fhfdg
98 of 135
saw change emphasis from 'cult of the little man' toward what?
heroes connected to the party
99 of 135
what was the standard plot of novels in the '30s
hero from the people is guided by party to greater things
100 of 135
developed in much of 'high literature by works of who?
sholokhov / gorky
101 of 135
and had much in common with what?
traditional russian folk stories
102 of 135
'lowbrow' literature usually concerned with heores from where?
russian history
103 of 135
or which other two things?
war stories / detective novels where police agent thwarts capitalists
104 of 135
what meant population had easy access?>
cheap
105 of 135
and also there was a tenfold growht in what?
library acquisitions
106 of 135
how did party control what was publsihed by who?
gov agencies
107 of 135
- music under socialist realism
efdfgd
108 of 135
what happened during a performance of shostakovich's opera?
stalin walked out?
109 of 135
lady macbeth pf mstensk was about what?
pc adultery
110 of 135
in what year?
'35
111 of 135
due to what?
disconcordant notes
112 of 135
why was the real reason stalin walked out?
stalin shocked @ use of trombones underlining what was happening in bedroom scene
113 of 135
in pop music what did gov favour over jazz?
military music
114 of 135
gov concern over decadent assoc w/ jazz led them to ban what in '40s?
saxophone
115 of 135
as in literature best to do what if you wanted to continue working?
stick to well-worn themes
116 of 135
- architecture under socialist realism
dgdg
117 of 135
promoted the style known as what?
'stalinist baroque'
118 of 135
better known as what kind of architecture?
'wedding cake'
119 of 135
which made use of what?
classical lines
120 of 135
many public buildings built in this stye the best example being?
moscow uni
121 of 135
rebuilt after?
'45
122 of 135
what system was another fine example of this?
moscow metro
123 of 135
with stations decorated with what?
chandeliers and murals of workers
124 of 135
- cinema under social realism
dfgd
125 of 135
what was conveyed through film such as einstein's october?
achievements of the revolution
126 of 135
which presented a heroic version of what event?
storming of winter palace in '17
127 of 135
served interest of government in presenting revolution how?
mass movement
128 of 135
what happened due to einstein's excessive use of extras and live ammo?
more ppl died in making of film than actual events
129 of 135
in wwii cinema was used to promote which two things?
patriotism / socialism
130 of 135
what film was one of most popular?
alexander nevsky
131 of 135
what was socialist realism rooted in?
the people
132 of 135
easy to criticise socialist realism as being out of touch with what?
reality
133 of 135
was this simply art for artsake?
no
134 of 135
what were three common things soviet population found in it?
identification / motivation / escapism
135 of 135

Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

in '17 what were bolsheviks divided over?

Back

importance and direction of cultural policy

Card 3

Front

lenin viewed culture as vital but subordinate to what?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

what were lenin's personal cultural tastes like?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

which groups did he want party to keep on side as much as possible?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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