USA Pressure Groups

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Why can protest marches be seen as a sign of weakness?
As if an organisation has to resort to mass action such as marches, this might be because the group cannot gain access to the channels of influence
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Why is the US congress so receptive to lobbying?
Because party loyalties have traditionally been weak and voting decisions in congress are much more a matter of individual choice in the USA
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Give examples of how pressure groups can influence elections?
By endorsing a candidate, publishing ratings of candidates based on their voting record, producing issue ads and PAC's
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Give an example of a pressure group publishing ratings of candidates in an election
The Christian Coalition
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What does PAC stand for?
Political Action Committee
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How can pressure groups influence the executive?
By seeking to establish a close relationship with particular departments, agencies and commissions
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How can pressure groups influence the federal courts?
Through lobbying, they can submit amicus curiae briefings, sponsoring a litigate, providing lawyers and funding and campaigning for and against certain candidates.
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What does amicus curiae mean?
Friends of the court
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What does submitting an amicus curiae mean?
Putting forward a statement to the court in its decision whether to consider a case
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Why may a pressure group choose to access state government?
Because they play a major role in decision making and are easier to access
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What is a PAC?
An organisation established by a pressure group or company to raise and distribute funds to electoral candidates
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What did the 1974 amendment to the federal campaign act mean?
That PACs were restricted to a donation of $5,000 per campaign for national office
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What was the loophole created by the federal campaign act amendment?
No overall limit was set on total contributions so therefore back candidates in different districts in different states across the country
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What was the restriction on the amount an individual could spend per year on PACs?
$25,000
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Where are most congressional PACs spent?
On incumbents
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What has Obama done to combat lobbying?
Barred them from joining his administration and executive boards throughout the executive branch and federal employees could no longer accept free admission to receptions and conferences held by lobbying groups
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Who is Marshall Matz?
He is a lobbyist who served as an unpaid adviser to Obama's 2008 campaign
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How often has Marshall Matz visited the White House in the past 2 1/2 years?
Roughly two dozen times
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Name some of the organisations that Marshall Matz has brought to the White House
The general council for biotechnology, the chief executive of cereal maker General Mills and advocates for farmers in Africa
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Who is Robin Schepper?
The chief of Michelle Obama's anti-obesity campaign
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Who did Marshall Matz bring to meet Robin Schepper?
The owner of Beef Products inc to argue that one of his products should be promoted for school products
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What is a PAC?
A form of interest group that exists solely to raise campaign funds
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When did PACs begin to become common?
After the FECA amendments in 1974
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What did FECA stand for?
Federal Elections Campaign Act
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Why did PACs arise?
As a way to get around the issues created by FECA
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What amount were PACs restricted to by FECA?
A donation of $5,000 per campaign for national office
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Was an overall limit set on total PAC contributions by FECA?
No
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What did the fact that no overall limit was set on total PAC contributions by FECA?
That they could therefore back candidates in different districts and states across the country
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Were individuals limited in any way on their donations?
Yes, they could not donate over a certain sum in one year
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What were individual donations per year restricted to?
$25,000
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To whom do most PAC donations go?
To congressional incumbents
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What is the benefit of PACs for congressional incumbents?
Financial support increases their chance of re-election further weighting the contest in their favour
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Which party in Congress receives a higher percentage of PAC donations?
Majority Party
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Why do PACs donate to incumbents?
In order to get the most bang for their buck, incumbents are more likely to win anyway
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What type of group is more likely to donate to newcomers?
Ideological groups
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What groups tends to give the most in PAC donations?
Real estate, insurance and finance groups
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In 2012 what percentage of PAC donations from ideological groups were given to newcomers?
22%
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In 2012, how much did the finance/real estate/insurance groups donate in PACs?
$71 million
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What percentage of PAC donations in 2012 from the finance/insurance/real estate group went to incumbents?
89%
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Who are PACs usually linked to?
Specific corporations, labour groups or recognized political parties
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Give an example of a corporate PAC
Microsoft
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Give an example of an organised labour PAC
Teamsters Union
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What is Emily's List?
A pro-choice PAC
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What are leadership PACs?
PACs formed by politicians to help fund the campaigns of other politicians
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Give an example of a leadership PAC
PAC to the future
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Who created PAC to the future?
Nancy Pelosi
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How much did PAC to the future spend?
$512,319
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Why was PAC to the future created?
To fund democratic candidates in hard to win states
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What are super PACs?
A new kind of PAC that can raise unlimited sums of money from corporations, unions associations and individuals to overtly advocate for or against political candidates
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When were super PACs created?
July 2010
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What were super PACs the result of?
The outcome of a federal court case known as Speechnow.org v Federal Electoral Commission
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What did Speechnow.org rule?
That, after a company broadcast an electoral video slandering Hilary Clinton and the Federal Electoral Commission prohibited this, that it was unconstitutional to prevent corporate funding ad campaigns
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What must Super PACs do?
Report their donations to the Federal Electoral Commission on a monthly basis
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What are super PACs prohibited from doing?
Donating any money directly to political candidates
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Who was Americans for a Better Tomorrow, Tomorrow established by?
Stephen Colbert
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What was Americans for a Better Tomorrow, Tomorrow?
A super PAC
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Who is Stephen Colbert?
A comedian who plays a right wing politician and takes the mic out of the Republicans
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What are Super PACs allowed to spend their money on?
Absolutely anything
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Give an example of someone abusing Super PAC money?
Sarah Palin used her Sarah PAC money to fund a holiday for her and her family
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What was Mitt Romney's Super PAC called?
Restore our future
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Who set up Restore Our Future?
Romney's lawyer
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How can candidates go around the fact that they are not allowed to be linked to any form of Super PAC?
They can use friends to establish them for them
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What do Super PACs demonstrate?
The weakness of the FEC
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According to the Washington Post, how many individuals account for nearly a third of all super PAC donations?
A few dozen wealthy individuals
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In November's mid terms, how many superwealthy people donated to super PACs which shaped the election?
42
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How much did 42 superwealthy individuals contribute to super PACs in the November 2014 mid terms?
Roughly $200 million
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What fraction of the total super PAC donations for the November 2014 mid terms did 42 individuals attribute to?
1/3
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What was the total amount raised by super PACs in the November 2014 mid terms?
$615 million
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Who is Tom Steyer
A liberal environmentalist and super PAC mega donor
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What the name of Tom Steyer's super PAC?
NextGen Climate Action
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What was the aim of the NextGen Climate Action Super PAC?
To make climate change a top priority several key Senate and gubernatorial races
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How much did Tom Steyer donate to NextGen Climate Action super PAC?
$73 million
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Who has Tom Steyer pledged his support in the 2016 election?
Hilary Clinton
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Who is Michael Bloomberg?
A super PAC mega donor
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What is the top concern in the presidential election for Michael Bloomberg?
Gun control
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How much has Michael Bloomberg donated to super PACs?
20 million
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What is the name of the super PAC created by Michael Bloomberg?
Independence USA
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In December 2014 how many super PACs where there?
1,259
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What were the total receipts of all Super PACs in December 2014?
$687,518,542
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What was the total expenditures of super PACs in December 2014?
$345,939,746
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So far in 2015-16 who is the top super PAC?
Honeywell International
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What percentage of donations from Honeywell International go to the Republicans?
64%
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What party has the most donations from super PACs?
The Republicans
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Who is the second biggest super PAC donor for the 2015-16 cycle?
AT&T
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What are single-candidate super PACs?
Super PACs designed to support one candidate only
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For the 2015-16 cycle, which candidate has the most effective super PAC?
Jeb Bush
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What is the name of Jeb Bush's super PAC?
Right To Rise USA
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How much so far has Jeb Bush's Right To Rise USA super PAC raised?
Nearly $119m
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How many single candidate Super PACs are there for the 2015-16 cycle?
136
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How much so far have individual candidate super PACs raised for the 2015-16 cycle? (April)
$435m
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What is the name of Clinton's super PAC for 2016?
Priorities USA action
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How many senators supported building the Keystone Pipeline?
59
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How many senators opposed building the Keystone Pipeline?
41
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How many senate Republicans opposed the building of the Keystone Pipeline?
None
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How many Democrats supported building the Keystone Pipeline?
14
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Who was the top donor opposing the building of the keystone pipeline?
Tom Steyer
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How much did the 59 senators voting for the keystone pipeline receive in donations from the oil and gas industry over their careers?
Over $33m
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How much in donations did the senators voting against the keystone pipeline receive in donations from the oil and gas industry over their careers?
Only $4.2m
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How much did the 14 Democrats voting for the keystone pipeline receive from the oil and gas industry?
$4 million
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On average how much did those Democrats voting no to the keystone pipeline receive from the oil and gas industry?
$108,000
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On average how much did those Democrats voting yes for the keystone pipeline receive from the oil and gas industry?
$284,000
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How much on average did a Republican voting against the keystone pipeline receive?
$662,000
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Who helped finance the GOP for mid terms?
The Koch Brothers
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Give evidence for the role of the Koch brothers in the GOP
There is evidence that the Republicans would have been severely outspent if the brothers hadn't have stepped in
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What percentage of Koch industries do the Koch brothers own?
84%
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How big is Koch industries?
It is the second biggest privately owned company in the US
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What type of groups do the Koch brothers contribute to?
Libertarian and conservative
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Are the Koch brothers for or against climate change legislation?
Against
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Are the Koch brothers for or against universal health care?
Against
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What is the net worth of each of the Koch brothers?
$42 billion
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What type of industry do the Koch brothers deal with?
Oil
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What is the political stance of the Koch brothers?
Libertarian
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How much did the Koch brothers contribute to kill Obamacare?
$1million
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How much do the Koch brothers plan to donate to the 2016 presidential election?
$889 million
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What was the Adelson primary?
Where Sheldon Adelson invited Republican presidential candidates to a meeting in Nevada to tell him about their views and he would choose one of them to receive millions of dollars
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Who was the main funder of the creation of the Tea Party?
The Koch brothers
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In what ways did the Koch brothers influence politicians?
They invited them to their retreats and discussed their policy wishes with them there
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What is the revolving door syndrome?
Where politicians move from politics to the private sector, such as lobbying and often back into politics
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What street has become associated with lobbying in the US?
K Street in Washington
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Give an example of a politician who is an example of the revolving door syndrome
Dick Cheney, Dick Gephardt who left his Democrat seat to create a lobbying agency called Gephardt Government Affairs Group
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In 2010 how much did lobbyist Gephardt earn?
$7 million
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Name some of the clients that Gephardt had
Goldman Sachs and Boeing
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Give evidence to show that Obama's attempts to cull the lobbying industry have worked
In 2012 there were almost half as many lobbyists who became congressional aides than there was in 2011
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How many lobbyists currently work for Obama?
65
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Who is the most famous lobbyist to have worked in Washington?
Jack Abramoff
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How much did Jack Abramoff used to earn per year?
$20 million
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How much each year did Jack Abramoff pay to lavish congressmen just with sports tickets?
$1m
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What, according to Abramoff, was the most effective way of buying a congressman?
Offering them a job in advance for once they were done on the hill
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Who was the main contact of Abramoff affected in the fallout of his scandal?
Tom Delay, majority leader of the house
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What happened to Abramoff?
He was subject to an FBI investigation and sentenced to 6 years in prision
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Who were one of Abramoff's major clients?
The Native Americans
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In the first 10 months of 2001 how many contacts from the Bush administration did Abramoff gain?
200
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How did Abramoff influence the Native Americans?
He guided them away from the traditional Democrat Party to the Republicans
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How much, under the influence of Abramoff, did the Native Americans donate to the Republicans in 2001?
$2.9m
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When did Abramoff begin representing Indian tribes?
1995
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Give an example of Abramoff influencing policy on behalf of clients
Quashing the congressional bill to tax gambling on reservations
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Who helped Abramoff quash policies in Congress?
DeLay
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Who was Ralph Reed?
Executive director of the Christian Coalition
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What happened to Ralph Reed?
He was implicated in the Abramoff scandal after he accepted payments from Abramoff to lobby against gambling bills
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What was the Christian Coalition?
A Christian conservative group that opposed Clinton's social plicies
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How many offices in Congress did Abramoff have significant influence?
Around 100
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What is MADD?
Mothers against drunk driving
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What is the NAACP?
National Association for the Advancement of Coloured People
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What is the NRA?
National Rifle Association
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Why are pressure groups so important in the US?
There is a multi-variant society, it's impossible for parties to contantly be representative, constitutional fragmentation makes domination of parties hard and First Ammendment encourages freedom
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What is a multi-variant society?
A society with huge diversity
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What is the AARP?
The American Association of Retired Persons
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How many members does the AARP have?
38 million
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What does the AARP do?
Represents the over 50s in all aspects
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What levels can pressure groups operate at?
All, federal state and local
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What are access points?
People or ways in which pressure groups can gain influence in government
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Do insider groups and outsider groups exist in the US?
No because they may be an insider at state level but not at national level and vice versa
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What are the different types of pressure groups?
Institutional, membership groups
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What is an institutional group?
A group that seeks to represent organisations and groups
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What are institutional groups similar to in the UK?
Sectional groups
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Give an example of an institutional group
The American Bar Association
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What are membership groups?
Groups that seek to represent individual americans views
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Give an example of membership groups
PETA
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What are membership groups similar to in the UK?
Cause groups
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What are the functions of US pressure groups?
Representation, participation, agenda building, public education and scrutinising government
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When was the NAACP created?
1909
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What supreme court case ended segregation?
Brown vs Board of Education
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What issue has the NAACP recently been getting involved in?
Police brutality towards African Americans
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Give an example of police brutality towards African Americans
The shooting of Michael Brown
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What function does the NAACP fulfil?
Representation
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What is the Sierra club?
A middle class environmental group
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What function does the Sierra Club fulfil?
Participation
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Give an example of the Sierra Club encouraging participation
They are trying to get the public to sign petitions to their governors against the drilling of the Arctic
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Give an example of agenda building used by many pressure groups
Score cards
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What do score cards do?
Rank politicians based on how the party sees them representing their issues
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Give an example of a pressure group using a score card
The Christian Coalition
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Were the AARP for or against Obamacare?
For
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Give an example of a group that fulfils the education function of pressure groups
MADD
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What does MADD do to educate?
They go into schools to talk about the effects of drunk driving
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Give an example of a pressure group that has scrutinised government
Vote Vets
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What did Vote Vets scrutinise?
They scrutinised GWB for his treatment of veterans returning from combat and for authorising the use of unsafe equipment
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Give an example of electioneering
The creation of PACs
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Give an example of a PAC created by pressure groups
Ohio Dairy Producers Association and African Political Action Committee
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What are the methods of pressure groups?
Electioneering, lobbying, litigation in court, publicity and advertising and grassroots activities
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Where is the vast majority of PAC money spent?
On incumbents
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Who did Jack Abramoff originally work for?
The Christian Coalition
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What is an example of a grassroots activity?
A postal blitz on Congress and email blitz which brings down the computer system
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Give an example of a pressure group who uses grassroots activities
NAACP over Michael Brown
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What is a way in which pressure groups can use litigation in the courts?
Amicus Curaie, they can also sponsor somebody in their court case
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What is amicus curaie?
Friends of the court, where pressure gorups can use their expertise to gain influe
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Give an example of a pressure group sponsoring a court case
NAACP and Brown vs Board of Education
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How do pressure groups try and influence congress?
Through trying to influence the vote of their congressman using letters and emails
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What is the most powerful way for pressure groups to have influence in government?
To contact the Senate and House committees regarding their area or to be chosen to act as an expert on these committees
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What ways can pressure groups influence government?
Phone calls, bringing cases to court, contacting departments, score cards, congressional committees, act as an expert and influencing supreme court justice nominations
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How much did the Sierra Club spend on advertising in the 1996 election?
Over $16m
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How many government departments are there in the US?
Over 50
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What has Walmart got a bad reputation for?
Working conditions
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Give an example of a pressure group bringing a case to court?
Reno V American Civil Liberties
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Which pressure group opposed Robert Bork?
National Organisation for Women
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Why did the National Organisation for Women oppose Robert Bork?
For his views on abortion
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Who had tried to nominate Robert Bork to the Supreme Court Justice?
Reagan
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What factors bring success to pressure groups?
Size, relationship with government, separation of powers, PACs, Media, Litigation, lobbying, iron triangle, party weakness
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Which pressure group has the largest membership?
The AARP
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Who is the CEO of Enron?
Kenneth Lay
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Give an example of a pressure group that had a close relationship with government
Enron
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Who were Enron linked to?
Dick Cheney
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What did Enron want doing with price caps?
To have them done away with
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What was Dick Cheney's response to price caps?
They were out of the question
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What are iron triangles?
Where pressure groups form links to the executive and relevant committees ensuring that policy goes in their favour
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Give an example of an iron triangle
Under Bush, the links between the defence contractors (Boeing and Lockheed Martin), Defence Department and Armed Services Committee
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What are defence contractors?
A business or organisation that provides arms to government e.g. weaponry, ships etc
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Give an example of a defence contractor
Boeing and Lockheed Martin
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Give some examples of states where marijuana has been legalised
Colorado and Washington
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Under federal law is marijuana illegal?
Yes
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Give an example of a pressure group that endorses the use of marijuana
Norml
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Do any of the major parties oppose the use of marijuana?
No
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What does the separation of powers create for pressure groups?
Access points
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Give an example of a pressure group that benefits from separation of powers?
MADD which has many local chapters aimed at driving local debate and reform
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How does lobbying help pressure groups?
Money buys power and influence
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How much did Abramoff charge one Native American tribe in Indiana?
£32m
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How do super PACs help pressure groups?
They can help raise money to elect a candidate which they know will put forward their views in Congress
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How can pressure groups use the media to help them succeed?
They can buy advertisements and raise awareness
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How many guns per person are there in the US?
One
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Per 100,000 people how many homicides are there in the US?
5
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How much more likely than Britons are Americans to be murdered with a gun?
40 times
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In 2013 how many Americans were killed by others using guns?
11,208
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Why is there no national database about firearms in the US?
Because gun lobbyists see that as the first step towards disarmament
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In 2014 what percentage of Americans wanted to ban handguns?
26%
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What percentage of undercover agents were able to sneak firearms onto a plane?
96%
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Which party is associated with the NAACP?
The Democrats
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Which party is associated with the Christian Coalition?
The Republicans
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What did Congress pass in 1978 to limit lobbying?
The Ethics in Government Act
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What did the Ethics in Government Act do?
Forbade former executive branch officials from lobbying their former government agencies within a year of leaving
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What did Clinton do to the Ethics in Government Act in 1993?
Extended the one year restriction to five
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Give an example of where adverts have had a significant influence
Insurance companies used advertisements to kill off Clinton's healthcare reforms in 1993-4
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Give an example of a small form of advertising that pressure groups can use
Bumper stickers and roadside hoardings
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Did Congress accept or block Clinton's attempt at regulating the energy trade?
Blocked
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Of the Congress which blocked Clinton's attempts at regulating the energy trade how many senators had received contributions from Enron?
71
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Of the Congress that blocked Clinton's attempts to regulate the energy industry, how many members of the HoR recieved contributions from Enron?
188
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What is the corporatist theory?
The social theory that emphasises the privileged position that certain groups enjoy in relation to government which enables them to influence public policy
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Who does corporatism favour?
Economic or functional groups
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What does corporatism often lead to?
Iron triangles
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What is the New Right model?
Where social groups and collective bodies are viewed with suspicion
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What is public-choice theory?
The argument that people only join interest groups to secure public goods
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Give an example of a business based pressure group
American Business Conference or National Automobile Dealers Association
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Give an example of an agriculture based pressure group
American Farm Bureau Federation or National Farmers Union
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Give an example of a US Union
American Federation of Labour and Congress of Industrial Organizations or United Auto Workers
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Give an example of a professional based pressure group
American Medical Association and the American Bar Association
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Give an example of a single issue pressure group
MADD and NRA
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Give an example of an ideological pressure group?
American Conservative Union, People for the American Way and American Civil Liberties Union
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Give an example of a group that advocates group rights
NAACP, NOW and AARP
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Give an example of a public interest pressure group?
Common Cause and Friends of the Earth
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What is a collective term used for the lobbying companies in Washington?
The K Street Corridor
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For how many years did Clinton enjoy party control of Congress?
Two
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For how many years did George W Bush enjoy party control of Congress?
Four and a half
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Who does Emily's list support?
Women candidates
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When was Brown Vs Board of Education?
1954
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Give an example of a pressure group bringing a case to court
McCreary County v. American Civil Liberties
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Which pressure group brought the McCreary County v. American Civil Liberties to court?
American Civil Liberties
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What was the argument of the American Civil Liberties group in McCreary County v. American Civil Liberties?
That it was unconstitutional for Kentucky courthouses and schools to display religious information such as the ten commandments
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What did the Supreme Court refuse to allow the banning of in 2000?
Partial birth abortions
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What did the SC do with the refusal to allow the banning of partial birth abortions in 2007?
They allowed the bans in certain states, declaring them to be constitutional
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Give an example of a court case where the NRA played a significant role
DC v. Heller
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What was the ruling of District of Columbia v. Heller?
The court declared it unconstitutional to ban the ownership of handguns
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Which late senator commented that "America has the finest Congress that money can buy"?
Ted Kennedy
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Why is the US congress so receptive to lobbying?

Back

Because party loyalties have traditionally been weak and voting decisions in congress are much more a matter of individual choice in the USA

Card 3

Front

Give examples of how pressure groups can influence elections?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Give an example of a pressure group publishing ratings of candidates in an election

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What does PAC stand for?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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