USA Elections

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Over 41 years, how much money have Bill and Hilary Clinton received from donors?
Three billion
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How much has Stephen Spielberg donated to the Clinton's in total?
Nearly 2 and a half million
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Where did the Clintons' fundraising begin?
With Bill's 1974 congressional bid
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How much did Bill Clinton raise for his 1974 congressional bid?
$178,000
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How much has Hilary Clinton raised by May 2016 for her presidential bid?
$293 million
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Where has the majority of the money raised by the Clintons gone?
Clinton Foundation
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How much of the Clinton's money has gone to Clinton Foundation?'
Two billion
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What does Clinton Foundation do?
Supports health, education and economic development around the globe
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Over the past 15 years how much money have the Clinton's raised through giving lectures?
One hundred and fifty million
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Who is the Clinton's biggest donor?
Haim Saban and his wife
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Who is Haim Saban?
Author and owner of Univision
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What is Univision?
An American-Spanish TV network
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How much has Haim Saban donated to Hilary Clinton?
Two million
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How much in total has Haim Saban donated to the Clinton's?
Two and a half million
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How much have the Saban's donated to Clinton Foundation?
Ten million
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How much have the Clinton's received in donations from Wall Street?
Sixty nine million
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How much have the Clinton's received in donations from unions?
Twenty one million
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Which is the union that has donated the most to the Clinton's over the years?
AFSCME
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Which family has collectively held the presidency for the longest?
The Bush's
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How much in total has the Bush family raised in contributions from all of their work?
Two point four billion
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How many people have donated to the Clinton's?
290,000
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Which Clinton has received more donations over the years?
Hilary
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Which donor to the Clinton's did Bill Clinton choose to pardon for his crimes?
Marc Rich
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How many people did Bill Clinton pardon over his presidency
Four hundred and fifty
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Give an example of a celebrity who has endorsed the Clinton's
Mary Steenburgen
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Does the USA have fixed term elections?
Yes
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How often do presidential elections occur?
Once every four years
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What date is the presidential election always held on?
The Tuesday after the first Monday in November
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Why are the presidential elections always held on the Tuesday after the first Monday in November?
To avoid thanksgiving
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What are the four stages of the presidential election?
Primaries and caucuses, national party conventions, general election campaign and then election day
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What are the constitutional requirements of a candidate for the presidency?
Natural born American citizen, 35 years old, resident for 14 years,and only allowed two terms
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When was the constitution amended to limit Presidents to only two terms in office?
1951
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What are the unspoken requirements for a presidential candidate?
Political experience, major party endorsement, personal characteristics, ability to raise large sums of money, effective organisation, oratorical skills and reasonable policies
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When is it now claimed that the invisible primaries start?
Just after mid terms
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Is the invisible primary an official stage of the presidential election?
No
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What techniques can politicians use in the invisible primary stage?
Opinion polls, visits to key states
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Which state holds the first primary?
New Hampshire
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Which state holds the first Caucus?
Iowa
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Give an example of a presidential candidate dropping out due to a skeleton in their closet
Hermain Cain
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Which well qualified candidates did not choose to run in the 2012 election?
Mike Huckabee, Mitch Daniels and Chris Christie
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Give examples of candidates who dropped out during the invisible primary of 2012
Tim Pawlenty and Herman Cain
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What event is the success of Chris Christie attributed to?
His handling of Hurricane Sandy
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What did Herman Cain do before politics?
He was the CEO of Godfathers Pizza
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What was Herman Cain's main policy?
His 999 economic policy
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Why did Herman Cain drop out of the presidential race in 2011?
He dropped out due to sexual harrassment allegations
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Why did Rick Perry drop out of the presidential invisible primary in 2012?
He dropped out after forgetting the third department he would cut in his tax plan during the GOP debate
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Why did Michelle Bachmann drop out of the presidential race in 2012?
Due to the controversy surrounding her being a pagan when she was younger
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What do candidates do to get name recognition in the invisible primaries?
They publish books
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What do the invisible primaries allow for?
The accumulation of a war chest, name recognition, elimination of weak candidates,
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What is the name of Hilary Clinton's book?
Hard Choices
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What are the names of Obama's books?
The Audacity of Hope and Change We Can Believe In
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What is the name of Mitt Romney's book?
No Apology
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What is the accumulation of a war chest?
The accumulation of money to fight the presidential race
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What is the main significance of the invisible primary?
The frontrunners emerge
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Who was the frontrunner in the 2008 invisible primary for the Democrats?
Hilary Clinton
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Why did Howard Dean drop out of the presidential race in 2004?
After coming third in Iowa he screamed in his victory speech which killed his support
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What party did Howard Dean belong to?
Democrats
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What was special about the 2008 presidential election?
It was the first election since 1952 where neither an incumbent president or an incumbent VP was a candidate
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How many debates did the GOP hold in the 2008 election?
Twelve
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How many debates did the Democrats hold in the 2008 presidential election?
Sixteen
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During the 2008 invisible primary what lead did Clinton hold over Obama?
A thirteen point lead
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During the invisible primary for the 2008 election, who was said to have the lead for the Republicans?
Rudy Giuliani
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Why did Rudy Guiliani loose?
As many Conservatives were against his Liberal Social views
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Which current nominee is Guiliani endorsing?
Donald Trump
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Who was the mayor of New York when 9/11 happened?
Rudy Guiliani
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Before the first primary and caucus was there a clear frontrunner from either party in 2012?
No
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What happened in the Republican candidacy in the 2012 election?
Michelle Bachmann primarily did very well in polls, then Rick Perry overtook her but failed in TV debates and by November Newt Gingrich began to lead but was defeated by attack ads
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How much money was spent in attack ads against Newt Gingrich in the 2012 invisible primary?
Four million dollars
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How much did Clinton raise in the 2008 election?
$154 million
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How much did Obama raise in the 2008 election?
$129 million
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How much did Romney raise in the 2008 election?
$112 million
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How much did McCain raise for the 2008 election?
$54 million
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What did Obama say about the funding of his re-election campaign?
"I will be the first president in history to be outspent in his re-election campaign"
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How much did Obama raise in private donations in 2012?
$347 million
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How much money did Romney raise in private donations in 2012?
$192 million
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Which nominee for the 2012 election received the most money from super PACs?
Romney
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What groups did Obama's gain the support of in the 2012 election come from?
Hollywood, law firms, education, technology and health firms
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What groups did Romney gain the support of in the 2012 election?
Financial, insurance and real estate
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In 2008 what percentage of all news stories about Obama were positive?
Forty seven
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What percentage of all news stories about McCain in 2008 were negative?
Forty eight
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What percentage of all news stories about Clinton in 2008 were negative?
Thirty eight
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What good do primaries and caucuses bring?
Test the qualities of rival candidates, increase political participation, scrutinise candidates and build interest for the coming contest between parties
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What is a primary?
An election by the public which selects a nominee for the party in an election
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What is a caucus?
A meeting between party activists and elders to decide who they would like to be the party nominee
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What is an open primary?
Anyone in that state can vote in the party's primary
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What is a closed primary?
Where you have to be a party member or supporter to vote in their primaries
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When were primaries established?
After the downfall of Richard Nixon in the 1970s
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What action was taken in 2004 to try and prevent front loading?
The two major parties attempted to come up with a more orderly, fixed timetable
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What happened to the 2004 collegiate proposal to stop front loading?
The GOP scraped the plan at the 2004 National Party Convention
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What was the result of the reforms to prevent front loading being scrapped?
In 2008, 38 states held their primaries or caucuses before February
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In 2008, how many states held their primaries or caucuses before the end of February?
Thirty Eight
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How many primaries were there in Super Tuesday in 2008?
Twenty four
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What is front loading?
Where the states try to hold their primaries and caucuses earliest because the earlier you do so, the more media coverage you get and the less likely it is that the other candidates will have dropped out
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Which year saw the worst case of front loading ever?
2008
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What had happened by Super Tuesday in 2008 for the Republicans?
They had already virtually chosen McCain as their candidate
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In 2004 how many states held primaries and caucuses before February 5th?
Eight
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What was special for the Republicans in the 2008 election?
It was only the third time after Rosselvelt's 22nd Amendment that the party had to choose a different candidate than the incumbent president
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What was the controversial decision that Guiliani made in the 2008 primaries and caucuses?
He chose to save money and sit out the first 6 contests in order to concentrate on Florida
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How much did Guiliani spend in 2008?
Sixty three million
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How many delegates did Guiliani win in 2008?
Zero
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What percentage of Obama's funds came from women?
Forty four
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What percentage of Romney's funds came from women?
Twenty nine
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What is positive about primaries?
They are democratic
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Where did Clinton place in the Iowa caucus of 2008?
Third
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Give examples of candidates who have won in the Iowa primaries and ended up being front-runners
Kerry, Gore etc
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In what year did Super Tuesday begin?
1984
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What date was Super Tuesday held on during 2008?
Fifth of February
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How many Republican states took part in the 2008 Super Tuesday?
Twenty one
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What was Super Tuesday like before 1984?
Previously it had never been held before the 2nd of March and featured no more than ten contests
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By Super Tuesday in 2008 what percentage of delegates had been awarded to the Democrats?
Fifty two per cent
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By Super Tuesday 2008, what percentage of delegates had been awarded to the Republican candidates?
Forty one per cent
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How many winner takes all delegates primaries were there in Super Tuesday 2008?
Seven
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How many winner takes all delegates contests in the 2008 Super Tuesday did McCain win?
Six
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How many primaries did McCain win on Super Tuesday in 2008?
Nine
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How many delegates did John McCain win in the 2008 Super Tuesday?
Six hundred and two
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What happened with Michigan and Florida in the 2008 Super Tuesday?
They were punished by the DNC for scheduling primaries before the date permitted
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How many Democrat primaries took place on Super Tuesday in 2008?
Twenty two
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How many primaries did Obama win on Super Tuesday in 2008?
Thirteen
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How many primaries did Clinton win on Super Tuesday in 2008?
Nine
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Give examples of some of the states won by Hilary Clinton in the 2008 Super Tuesday contest?
California, New Jersey and New York
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In the 11 days following Super Tuesday in 2008, how many primaries did Obama win in a row?
Nine
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Who was selected by John McCain as his VP candidate?
Sarah Palin
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What did the Huffington Post describe John McCain's decision to have Sarah Palin as his running mate as?
"His worst decision ever"
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What was the voter turnout increase in Democratic Primaries from 2004 to 2008?
145%
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What is the average turnout increase in the Republican primaries 2000-2008?
Seven per cent
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Why was there such a steep increase in the Democrat Primary turnout between 2004-2008?
Because there was both a woman and a black man running for the presidency
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What are the criticisms of primaries and caucuses?
They have a low level of turnout, voter fatigue, no peer review, Iowa and New Hampshire are unrepresentative, open primaries encourage wrecking tactics and there is an advantage to those with financial resources
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What are the four stages of the presidential elections in order?
Primaries and caucuses, national party conventions, general election campaigns and election day
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What is the function of primaries and caucuses?
To show popular support for candidates, choose delegates to attend the national party conventions
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What is the function of the national party convention?
To choose a presidential candidate, choose VP candidates and decide on a party platform
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What is the function of the general election campaign?
To campaign between the candidates of the parties
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What is the function of election day?
To elect a president and VP
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When do primaries and caucuses occur?
Late January to early June
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When does the NPC occur?
July/August
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How long does the National Party Convention usually last for?
Four days
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When does the general election campaign usually occur?
September, October or the first week of November
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When does the election day usually occur?
November or December
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When can states choose when to hold their presidential primaries?
Within a time period set by the national parties
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Why may some states choose to have primaries on the same date as one of their neighbouring states?
In order to create a regional primary
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How are most delegates awarded after primaries?
Proportionally based on how many votes the candidate won
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What are winner takes all primaries?
Where in certain states the person who wins that primary takes all of the available delegates
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What party uses winner takes all primaries?
The GOP
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Name some states that are winner takes all states
Florida, Ohio, Montana, New Jersey, South Dakota, Arizona, Nebraska and Delaware
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In the 36 hours after Kerry's win in Iowa, how much did his campaign gain in campaign contributions?
Five hundred thousand
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What are the suggested replacements of the primaries and caucuses?
A national primary and regional primaries held weeks between each other and with the order determined in a draw
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Who is the candidate who becomes the nominee at the National Party Convention?
The candidate who has won the most delegate votes
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How is the number of delegates per state decided?
By considering the state population, the number of elected officials in office and the state's past support of party candidates
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How many delegates attended the NPC in 2012?
2286
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How many Republican delegates were needed in order to be nominated in 2012?
1144
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How many Republican delegates were pledged in 2012?
1871
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How many Republican delegates were unpledged in 2012?
Four hundred and fifteen
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What party has unpledged delegates?
Republican
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Which party has superdelegates?
Democrat
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How many delegates attended the NPC in 2012?
4022
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How many Democrat delegates were needed to be nominated in 2012?
2778
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Where was the Republican National Party Convention held in 2004?
New York
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Where was the 2004 Democrat NPC held?
Boston
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Where was the 2008 Republican NPC held?
Minneapolis-St Paul
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Where was the 2008 Democrat NPC held?
Denver
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How is the venue of the NPC decided?
At each party's national committee
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What are the informal functions of the NPC?
To promote party unity, to enthuse party faithful's and to enthuse voters
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What is a criticism of the NPC?
It is not needed as with committed delegates, you know before the convention who will win
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Give an example of the pointless nature of the NPC
In 2004 there were 4,322 delegates to the NPC, Kerry needed 2,162 to win nomination and 4 months prior to the convention he had 2,000
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What was the 1976 Republican NPC like?
Very close
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Who were the rivalling candidates for the 1976 Republican NPC?
Ford and Reagan
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Who won at the 1976 Republican NPC and by how many votes?
Ford by 17 votes
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What happens if no candidate wins an absolute majority in the NPC?
They continue balloting until one does
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What happens to committed delegates in the second balloting stage of the Convention?
They become free
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In the first 13 elections of the 20th century how many times were more than one ballot needed for either party?
Seven
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During 1952-2004 how many times was more than one ballot needed at either party's NPC?
Once
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What was special about the NPC in 2008?
It was the first time a candidate has announced his VP choice electronically
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What percentage of democratic delegates in 2008 were superdelegates?
Nineteen
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What happened on the first day of the Republican NPC in 2008?
It was interrupted by hurricane Gustav
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How many electoral college votes did Obama win in 2008?
365
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How many electoral votes did McCain win in 2008?
173
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What percentage of the vote did Obama win in 2008?
Fifty two
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What was the turnout of the presidential election in 2008?
Sixty two
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How many candidates took part in the 2008 election?
Twenty seven
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How many Democrat candidates took part in the 2008 election?
Twelve
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How many Republican candidates took part in the 2008 election?
Eleven
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What was the top PAC in 2008?
The National Association of Realtors
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How much money did the National Association of Realtors PAC donate?
Four million
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How many states changed from red to blue in 2008?
Nine
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Which nine states turned from red to blue in 2008?
Colorado, Florida, Indiana, Iowa, Nevada, New Mexico, North Carolina, Ohio and Virginia
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In how many elections has Ohio voted for the winning presidential candidate?
Twelve
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Name some reasons why Obama won the presidency in 2008?
The two term itch, presidency of GWB, right-track-wrong-track perception, the economy, the Palin effect and effectiveness of Obama's campaign
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How many local offices did Obama have in New Mexico?
Forty
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How many local offices in New Mexico did McCain have in the 2008 election?
"About a dozen"
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How many local offices did Obama have in North Carolina in 2008?
Forty seven
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How many local offices did McCain have in 2008 in North Carolina?
Twenty
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What percentage of people in 2008 felt that McCain had unfairly attacked Obama?
Sixty four
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Is the electoral college direct or indirect?
Indirect
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Why is the electoral college indirect?
Voters choose Electors who in turn decide upon the presidency themselves
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How many Electoral College votes does a candidate need to win to become president?
To hundred and seventy
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If the Electoral College cannot reach a majority, who selects the president?
The HoR
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How many votes did GWB have in comparison to Al Gore in the 2000 election?
Half a million less
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How many representatives for the HoR does California have?
Fifty three
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How many representatives does Alaska have for the HoR?
One
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How can the people protest against the action of a president?
In mid terms they can vote more members of the opposing party into either house, thus making it difficult for the president to pass policy
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Give an example of the people protesting over the actions of a president through elections?
The 2010 mid terms where the public seemed to protest over Obamacare and the HoR had a republican majority
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How many Senators are there per state in the US?
Two
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How many electors does each state have?
The same amount as their amount of senators and representatives they have combined
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Which state has the most electors?
California
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How many electors does California have?
Fifty five
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What are electors?
The people who decide on behalf of their states votes who to vote for as president
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What is a benefit of electors?
They act as a check on the possibly ill advised votes of the public
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Who established the electoral college?
The founding fathers
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Who announces the result of the presidential election?
The current VP
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When is the result of the presidential election usually announced?
January
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How many electors are there in total?
538
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Give an example of a contributor to a candidate having influence in policy
Hilary Clinton using Haim Saban in her Israeli policy despite him donating ten million to her foundation and six million to her personally and working in the media not politics
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What are faithless electors?
Electors who choose to not support the winner of their state's election
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Why does the electoral college distort the popular vote?
The winner of that state gets all of the electors, despite however small the margin of the win was
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Give an example of the electoral college distorting the popular vote
In 2000 Gore won the popular vote but got fewer ECVs than Bush
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What is the only way that third party candidates may fare well in an election?
If their support is concentrated in one region
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In 1992 what percentage of the popular vote did Ross Perot win?
Nineteen per cent
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How many ECVs did Ross Perot win in 1992?
None
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Why did Ross Perot not fare well in the electoral college?
His support was dispersed
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How many electors at least does every state get?
Three
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What is the problem with states having at least three ECVs?
Small states often have more ECVs per voter than bigger states
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What are the benefits of the electoral college?
It preserves the voice of small-population states and promotes a two horse race
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Why hasn't the electoral college been changed?
Because it is written in the constitution and it would require a hefty majority to change it
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What is needed to amend the constitution?
A two thirds majority in both houses
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What are the possible ways of reforming the electoral college?
The maine system, allocation of ECVs in each state in proportion to the popular vote, the automatic plan and the direct election plan
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What is the Maine system of reforming the electoral college?
Involves awarding one vote to a candidate for each congressional district that they win and two votes to the state wide winner
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What is a criticism of the maine system of reforming the electoral college?
Results would only be marginally different
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What would be a benefit of allocating ECVs in each state based on the popular vote?
It would be much fairer for third parties
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What is the automatic plan of reforming the electoral college?
It would get rid of electors and make the allocation of ECVs purely automatic
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What would the automatic plan combat?
Faithless electors
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What is the direct election plan?
A system much resembling AV with or without the use of the electoral college
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How many ECVs did Obama win in 2008?
365
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How many ECVs did McCain win in 2008?
173
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In 2004 what percentage of voters identified with one of the two major parties?
Seventy four
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What percentage of people in 2004 called themselves a Democrat?
Thirty seven
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What percentage of people in 2004 called themselves a Republican?
Thirty seven
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What percentage of Democrats in 2000 voted for Gore?
Eighty nine
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What percentage of Republicans voted for Bush in 2000?
Ninety three
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In presidential elections between 1952 and 2004 how many times did the party which managed to gain the highest support from its own party win?
12 out of 14
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Which gender is more likely to be registered to vote?
Women
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Which gender tends to turn out in highest numbers on election day?
Women
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Which party to women tend to support?
The Democrats
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In the eleven elections between 1964 to 2004, how many times did women support the Democrats?
Ten
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Give an example of women supporting the Democrats in an election
Supporting Kerry 51% in 2004
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What percentage of women's vote did Obama win in 2008?
Fifty six
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Why might African Americans support the Democrats?
FDR's New Deal, Kennedy and Johnson's civil rights laws etc
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Since 1980 what has the African American vote for the Democrats never dropped below?
Eight three per cent
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What percentage of African American votes did Obama win in 2008?
Ninety five
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Which minority is the biggest in the USA?
Hispanics
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Which party do Cuban Americans tend to support?
Republicans
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Which party do the majority of Hispanics tend to support?
Democrats
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In 1992, what percentage of the Hispanic vote did Bush Snr win?
Twenty four
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In 2008 what percentage of the Hispanic vote did Obama win?
Sixty six
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What percentage of the Hispanic vote did GWB win in 2004?
Forty four
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Which party do protestants tend to support?
Republican
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What party do Catholics tend to vote for?
Democrat
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Which party do Jews tend to vote for?
Democrat
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What correlation between religion and parties has arisen?
The amount of church attendance and voting Republican
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Out of four, how many Evangelical Christians voted Republican?
Three in four
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Which class group is most likely to support the Republicans?
Middle class
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Which economic groups did Clinton win the greatest support from 1992-1996?
Those earning under $15,000 and those earning over $100,000
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In 2000 what percentage of the poorest votes did Gore win?
57%
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What percentage of the wealthiest votes did Bush win in 2000?
53%
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What region tends to support the Democrats?
The Northeast
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What is the issue with the Northeast?
It is a declining region
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What region tends to support the Republicans?
The south
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Which coast tends to support the Democrats?
West
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What region has become a battleground in modern elections?
The Midwest
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Which city is essential in winning the white house?
Missouri
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In the past 12 elections, how many of the winners have won in Missouri?
All
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In 2008 what percentage of people cited the economy as the main issue of the election?
Sixty two
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What percentage of McCain's voters were excited at the prospect of his victory?
Fourteen
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What fraction of those who voted for Obama said they were excited at the prospect of his victory?
One third
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What percentage of people in 2008 felt that Palin was not qualified to govern if necessary?
Sixty
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When was the Federal Campaign Act passed?
1974
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Which candidate raised and spent more money than any other in history?
Nixon
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What were the aims of FECA?
To reduce candidates' reliance on a few very wealthy donors, to equalise the amount of money spent by both candidates and try and prevent cash for influence
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What are a few very wealthy donors referred to as?
Fat cats
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What did FECA limit individual contributions to?
One thousand dollars
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What did FECA limit corporate contributions to?
Five thousand dollars
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What did FECA ban?
Foreign donations
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What was candidates spending in primaries and caucuses limited to under FECA?
Ten million
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What was candidates' spending in the general election limited to by FECA?
Twenty million
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What body was established under FECA?
The Federal Election Commission
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What did Buckley v Valeo rule?
That those who do not seek matching funds were not bound by limits imposed under FECA
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What type of a loophole was created by FECA?
A soft money loophole
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What is soft money?
Money given to the parties by wealthy individuals, corporations and trade unions. Used for grass roots organising, get out and vote drives and issue ads that don't endorse one candidate and thus aren't regulated
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How strong a power did FECA have to reprimand candidates if they exceeded spending limits?
Limited ones
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What was the focal point of John McCain in the 2000 Republican bid for the nomination?
Campaign finance reform
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Which politician supported McCain in his calls for campaign finance reform?
Democrat Russ Feingold
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What did the efforts of McCain and Feingold result in?
The Bipartisan Campaign Finance Reform Act
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When was the BCRA passed?
March 2002
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Who signed BCRA into law?
Bush
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What is BCRA also known as?
The McCain-Feingold Act
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What did the McCain-Feingold Act do?
Banned soft money, individual contributions increased to 2,000, labour unions and corporations forbidden from funding, fundraising on federal property forbidden and use of corporate and labour union money to broadcast ads using candidate forbidden
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In what Supreme Court case was the McCain-Feingold Act upheld?
McConnell V. FEC
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Who was McConnell in the McConnell v. FEC case?
Mitch McConnell
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Name someone who is opposed to the McCain-Feingold Act
Mitch McConnell
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Which election was the most expensive in US history?
The 2004 election
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What does the fact that the 2004 election was the most expensive show?
That the McCain-Feingold Act has not worked and that there are still loopholes
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What are the loopholes to the McCain-Feingold Act?
It increased individual donations, independent PACs can avaoid the ban on soft money as long as they don't promote or denote a candidate
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Can you recieve federal campaign funds?
Yes, on each tax return the citizen is asked if they would like to donate $3 to the presidential campaign fund, the money collected by this is then given to the candidates equally
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Give an example of federal campagin funds
McCain receiving $84m in 2008
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In September 2008, how much did Obama raise?
$150 million
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By the first week of October, how much had Obama spent on TV ads in North Carolina alone?
Over five million
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By how much did Obama outspend McCain on TV ads in Florida and Virginia?
Three to one
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What happened to Florida and Virginia in 2008 after Obama's ad campaigns?
They switched from supporting McCain to Obama
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Who raised the lowest amount in 2008?
Alan Keyes
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What party was Alan Keyes formerly a member of?
The Republicans
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What party did Alan Keyes run for in 2008?
The Constitution Party
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How much did Alan Keyes raise in 2008?
$22,768
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What does mass media refer to?
Methods of communication that can reach a large and potentially unlimited number of people simultaneuosly
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What is print journalism?
Newspapers and the weeklies
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Give an example of print journalism
The New York Times, the Washington Post, Time and Newsweek
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What is the only national daily newspaper in the US?
USA Today
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Does the printed press have more of an influence in the UK or US?
UK
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What type of channels are referred to as 'old television'?
Terrestrial channels
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Give an example of a terrestrial channel
ABC, NBC, CBS and PBS
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What types of channels are referred to as 'new television'?
Cable channels
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Give an example of cable channels
FOX, MSBNC and CNN
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What is an issue with FOX?
It is highly biased towards the Republicans
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When was the first ever TV commercial used?
1952
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How long do campaign commercials in the USA last?
Thirty seconds
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Where is more money on commericals usually spent?
In swing states
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What do Psephologists argue about the impact of ads?
They do little in the way of conversion but instead act more as to further convince someone of their beliefs
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Give an example of a famous and impacting attack ad
Johnson's daisy girl commercial
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What happened in Johnson's daisy girl commercial?
A little girl is seen picking daisies and then a nuclear explosion occurs
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Give an example of an attack ad going wrong
Bush Senior's Willie Horton
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What happened in the Willie Horton ad?
Bush attacks his opponent for giving ******, kidnapper and attempted murderer Willie Horton weekend passes from jail
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Why did the Willie Horton ad backfire?
Because Horton was black and thus Bush's campaign was accused of being racist
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Give the most famous example of a televised debate
The Nixon JFK debate
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Who is the only third party candidate that has ever been allowed to participate in the televised debates?
Ross Perot
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What year did Ross Perot run for president?
1992
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Who ran as VP for Ross Perot?
James Stockdale
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What was the problem with James Stockdale?
He forgot to turn his hearing aid on during the televised debates
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What are the unwritten rules of televised debates?
Style is more important than substance. verbal gaffes can be costly, sound bites are useful and debates are often much harder for incumbents
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Give the arguments that televised debates are declining in significance?
There is rarely a knock out blow, viewing figures have declined and they only confirm feelings, they do not convert people
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How many people tuned in to watch the 2008 second debate?
Sixty three million
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How many people tuned in to watch the vice-presidential debate in 2008?
Seventy million
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What was the most watched televised debate in the USA?
The 1980 Carter-Reagan debate
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What is selective exposure?
Where candidates choose to represent themselves in media bodies that represent their views, not challenge them
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What is selective perception?
Where individuals mentally edit the media they are exposed to, filtering out content that doesn't fit their own ideas
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What is selective retention?
Where people tend to forget the media content that challenge their views whilst retaining material that can be used to justify their opinions
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How did John McCain alienate younger viewers?
He admitted that he was not internet savvy and did not know how to use emails
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How did McCain attempt to fix the problem of alienating voters?
His campaign purchased certain words on Google and Yahoo to direct internet traffic to his campaign
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Who did Obama employ to help with social media?
Facebook's Chris Hughes
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What did Chris Hughes do for Obama's campaign?
Revolutionised his website and created his own social networking site
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What was the name of the social networking site that Chris Hughes created for Obama?
mybarackobama.org
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Who was the pioneer of internet usage in the presidential campaign?
Howard Dean
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What has been the role of Anita Dunn in the media?
She has led a offensive against Fox News, describing it as a 'wing of the Republican Party' and banning them from presidential interviews
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Who is Anita Dunn?
Obama's White House Communications Direct
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What do many argue that the immense number of elections in the USA leads to?
Voter fatigue
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How many positions in the USA are decided using elections?
Five hundred thousand
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Give an example of small role that is elected
Dog wardens
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How easy are state constitutions to amend?
Easy
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What are initiatives and propositions?
Where in 23 states and Washington DC, voters may be asked to vote on issues that have not been addressed by the state legislature but that ordinary voters feel strongly about
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What are initiatives and propositions similar to?
Referendums
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Who can start an initiative or proposition?
Any citizen over the age of 18
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What is different between referendums and initiatives and propositions?
Referendums are started by government, initiatives are started by the people
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Where was proposition 8 initiated?
In California
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When was proposition 8 initiated?
In the November 2008 election
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Why did proposition 8 come about?
A Californian court ruled that an article of the state's constitution which stated that marriage was between a man and a woman was ruled unconstitutional
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What was proposition 8 aiming to do?
Overturn the ruling and ensure that the constitution is amended to say that marriage is only between a man and a woman
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What was the result of proposition 8?
It was passed
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What are recall elections?
The election in order to remove officials from their office before their term has passed
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How many states hold recall elections?
Twenty six
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What percentage of signatures from the registered electorate need to be found in order for a recall election to be initiated?
Twenty five per cent
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How many votes does one have in a recall election?
Two
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What is the first vote used for in a recall election?
To decide if the office holder should be recalled
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What is the second vote used for in a recall election?
To choose the potential replacement of the office holder
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What does the winning candidate in a recall election do?
Serves the rest of their predecessors term
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Give an example of a recall election
The recall of Governor Gray Davis in California
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When was Gray Davis' recall election?
October 2003
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What was the result of Gray Davis' recall election?
He was recalled
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What was the percentage of the electorate who voted to recall Governor Gray Davis?
Fifty five per cent
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Who was chosen to replace Gray Davis as Governor of California?
Arnold Schwarzenegger
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What was the participation percentage average in the 60s USA?
Sixty two per cent
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What is the average turnout to elections in the USA nowadays?
Forty eight
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What is the average turnout to midterms?
Thirty eight per cent
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What was the average turnout to midterms in the 1960s?
Forty five per cent
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What fraction of Americans move to a new location every 5 years?
One fifth
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Who was the Motor Voter Act aimed at?
People who were not sufficiently motivated to vote
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Why is there a lack of universal suffrage in the states?
The states themselves can choose what the voter requirements are
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Give an example of a midterm having no impact
1998
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What does state law in New Hampshire say about the presidential election?
That they must hold their primary before any other state
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What was the date of the first primary or caucus in 2008?
January third
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What date was Super Tuesday in 2008?
February fifth
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How many states took part in Super Tuesday this year?
Eleven
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What date was the first primary held on this year?
February first
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What date was Super Tuesday held on this year?
March first
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What is a proposition?
A blanket term for any ballot measure to be voted on by the people. It can be an initiative or a referendum
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What was proposition 65 in California?
A proposition to ensure that business owners warn customers to the existence of carcinogenic chemicals around them
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What is a referendum?
A direct vote in which an entire electorate is asked to either accept or reject a proposal
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What are initiatives?
They provide a way for a petition signed by a certain number of registered voters to force a public vote on a proposition
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Originally, how many people did the founding fathers want on representative to represent?
30,000
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If nowadays there was a representative for every 30,000 people, how many representatives would there be?
8,270
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How many people does the average constituency have?
570,000
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How many representatives does Vermont have?
Only one
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Card 2

Front

How much has Stephen Spielberg donated to the Clinton's in total?

Back

Nearly 2 and a half million

Card 3

Front

Where did the Clintons' fundraising begin?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

How much did Bill Clinton raise for his 1974 congressional bid?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

How much has Hilary Clinton raised by May 2016 for her presidential bid?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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