Over 41 years, how much money have Bill and Hilary Clinton received from donors?
1 of 397
How much has Stephen Spielberg donated to the Clinton's in total?
Nearly 2 and a half million
2 of 397
Where did the Clintons' fundraising begin?
With Bill's 1974 congressional bid
3 of 397
How much did Bill Clinton raise for his 1974 congressional bid?
4 of 397
How much has Hilary Clinton raised by May 2016 for her presidential bid?
5 of 397
Where has the majority of the money raised by the Clintons gone?
6 of 397
How much of the Clinton's money has gone to Clinton Foundation?'
7 of 397
What does Clinton Foundation do?
Supports health, education and economic development around the globe
8 of 397
Over the past 15 years how much money have the Clinton's raised through giving lectures?
One hundred and fifty million
9 of 397
Who is the Clinton's biggest donor?
Haim Saban and his wife
10 of 397
Who is Haim Saban?
Author and owner of Univision
11 of 397
What is Univision?
An American-Spanish TV network
12 of 397
How much has Haim Saban donated to Hilary Clinton?
13 of 397
How much in total has Haim Saban donated to the Clinton's?
Two and a half million
14 of 397
How much have the Saban's donated to Clinton Foundation?
15 of 397
How much have the Clinton's received in donations from Wall Street?
Sixty nine million
16 of 397
How much have the Clinton's received in donations from unions?
Twenty one million
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Which is the union that has donated the most to the Clinton's over the years?
18 of 397
Which family has collectively held the presidency for the longest?
19 of 397
How much in total has the Bush family raised in contributions from all of their work?
Two point four billion
20 of 397
How many people have donated to the Clinton's?
21 of 397
Which Clinton has received more donations over the years?
22 of 397
Which donor to the Clinton's did Bill Clinton choose to pardon for his crimes?
23 of 397
How many people did Bill Clinton pardon over his presidency
Four hundred and fifty
24 of 397
Give an example of a celebrity who has endorsed the Clinton's
25 of 397
Does the USA have fixed term elections?
26 of 397
How often do presidential elections occur?
Once every four years
27 of 397
What date is the presidential election always held on?
The Tuesday after the first Monday in November
28 of 397
Why are the presidential elections always held on the Tuesday after the first Monday in November?
To avoid thanksgiving
29 of 397
What are the four stages of the presidential election?
Primaries and caucuses, national party conventions, general election campaign and then election day
30 of 397
What are the constitutional requirements of a candidate for the presidency?
Natural born American citizen, 35 years old, resident for 14 years,and only allowed two terms
31 of 397
When was the constitution amended to limit Presidents to only two terms in office?
32 of 397
What are the unspoken requirements for a presidential candidate?
Political experience, major party endorsement, personal characteristics, ability to raise large sums of money, effective organisation, oratorical skills and reasonable policies
33 of 397
When is it now claimed that the invisible primaries start?
Just after mid terms
34 of 397
Is the invisible primary an official stage of the presidential election?
35 of 397
What techniques can politicians use in the invisible primary stage?
Opinion polls, visits to key states
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Which state holds the first primary?
37 of 397
Which state holds the first Caucus?
38 of 397
Give an example of a presidential candidate dropping out due to a skeleton in their closet
39 of 397
Which well qualified candidates did not choose to run in the 2012 election?
Mike Huckabee, Mitch Daniels and Chris Christie
40 of 397
Give examples of candidates who dropped out during the invisible primary of 2012
Tim Pawlenty and Herman Cain
41 of 397
What event is the success of Chris Christie attributed to?
His handling of Hurricane Sandy
42 of 397
What did Herman Cain do before politics?
He was the CEO of Godfathers Pizza
43 of 397
What was Herman Cain's main policy?
His 999 economic policy
44 of 397
Why did Herman Cain drop out of the presidential race in 2011?
He dropped out due to sexual harrassment allegations
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Why did Rick Perry drop out of the presidential invisible primary in 2012?
He dropped out after forgetting the third department he would cut in his tax plan during the GOP debate
46 of 397
Why did Michelle Bachmann drop out of the presidential race in 2012?
Due to the controversy surrounding her being a pagan when she was younger
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What do candidates do to get name recognition in the invisible primaries?
They publish books
48 of 397
What do the invisible primaries allow for?
The accumulation of a war chest, name recognition, elimination of weak candidates,
49 of 397
What is the name of Hilary Clinton's book?
50 of 397
What are the names of Obama's books?
The Audacity of Hope and Change We Can Believe In
51 of 397
What is the name of Mitt Romney's book?
52 of 397
What is the accumulation of a war chest?
The accumulation of money to fight the presidential race
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What is the main significance of the invisible primary?
The frontrunners emerge
54 of 397
Who was the frontrunner in the 2008 invisible primary for the Democrats?
55 of 397
Why did Howard Dean drop out of the presidential race in 2004?
After coming third in Iowa he screamed in his victory speech which killed his support
56 of 397
What party did Howard Dean belong to?
57 of 397
What was special about the 2008 presidential election?
It was the first election since 1952 where neither an incumbent president or an incumbent VP was a candidate
58 of 397
How many debates did the GOP hold in the 2008 election?
59 of 397
How many debates did the Democrats hold in the 2008 presidential election?
60 of 397
During the 2008 invisible primary what lead did Clinton hold over Obama?
A thirteen point lead
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During the invisible primary for the 2008 election, who was said to have the lead for the Republicans?
62 of 397
Why did Rudy Guiliani loose?
As many Conservatives were against his Liberal Social views
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Which current nominee is Guiliani endorsing?
64 of 397
Who was the mayor of New York when 9/11 happened?
65 of 397
Before the first primary and caucus was there a clear frontrunner from either party in 2012?
66 of 397
What happened in the Republican candidacy in the 2012 election?
Michelle Bachmann primarily did very well in polls, then Rick Perry overtook her but failed in TV debates and by November Newt Gingrich began to lead but was defeated by attack ads
67 of 397
How much money was spent in attack ads against Newt Gingrich in the 2012 invisible primary?
Four million dollars
68 of 397
How much did Clinton raise in the 2008 election?
69 of 397
How much did Obama raise in the 2008 election?
70 of 397
How much did Romney raise in the 2008 election?
71 of 397
How much did McCain raise for the 2008 election?
72 of 397
What did Obama say about the funding of his re-election campaign?
"I will be the first president in history to be outspent in his re-election campaign"
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How much did Obama raise in private donations in 2012?
74 of 397
How much money did Romney raise in private donations in 2012?
75 of 397
Which nominee for the 2012 election received the most money from super PACs?
76 of 397
What groups did Obama's gain the support of in the 2012 election come from?
Hollywood, law firms, education, technology and health firms
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What groups did Romney gain the support of in the 2012 election?
Financial, insurance and real estate
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In 2008 what percentage of all news stories about Obama were positive?
79 of 397
What percentage of all news stories about McCain in 2008 were negative?
80 of 397
What percentage of all news stories about Clinton in 2008 were negative?
81 of 397
What good do primaries and caucuses bring?
Test the qualities of rival candidates, increase political participation, scrutinise candidates and build interest for the coming contest between parties
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What is a primary?
An election by the public which selects a nominee for the party in an election
83 of 397
What is a caucus?
A meeting between party activists and elders to decide who they would like to be the party nominee
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What is an open primary?
Anyone in that state can vote in the party's primary
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What is a closed primary?
Where you have to be a party member or supporter to vote in their primaries
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When were primaries established?
After the downfall of Richard Nixon in the 1970s
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What action was taken in 2004 to try and prevent front loading?
The two major parties attempted to come up with a more orderly, fixed timetable
88 of 397
What happened to the 2004 collegiate proposal to stop front loading?
The GOP scraped the plan at the 2004 National Party Convention
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What was the result of the reforms to prevent front loading being scrapped?
In 2008, 38 states held their primaries or caucuses before February
90 of 397
In 2008, how many states held their primaries or caucuses before the end of February?
91 of 397
How many primaries were there in Super Tuesday in 2008?
92 of 397
What is front loading?
Where the states try to hold their primaries and caucuses earliest because the earlier you do so, the more media coverage you get and the less likely it is that the other candidates will have dropped out
93 of 397
Which year saw the worst case of front loading ever?
94 of 397
What had happened by Super Tuesday in 2008 for the Republicans?
They had already virtually chosen McCain as their candidate
95 of 397
In 2004 how many states held primaries and caucuses before February 5th?
96 of 397
What was special for the Republicans in the 2008 election?
It was only the third time after Rosselvelt's 22nd Amendment that the party had to choose a different candidate than the incumbent president
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What was the controversial decision that Guiliani made in the 2008 primaries and caucuses?
He chose to save money and sit out the first 6 contests in order to concentrate on Florida
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How much did Guiliani spend in 2008?
Sixty three million
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How many delegates did Guiliani win in 2008?
100 of 397
What percentage of Obama's funds came from women?
101 of 397
What percentage of Romney's funds came from women?
102 of 397
What is positive about primaries?
They are democratic
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Where did Clinton place in the Iowa caucus of 2008?
104 of 397
Give examples of candidates who have won in the Iowa primaries and ended up being front-runners
Kerry, Gore etc
105 of 397
In what year did Super Tuesday begin?
106 of 397
What date was Super Tuesday held on during 2008?
Fifth of February
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How many Republican states took part in the 2008 Super Tuesday?
108 of 397
What was Super Tuesday like before 1984?
Previously it had never been held before the 2nd of March and featured no more than ten contests
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By Super Tuesday in 2008 what percentage of delegates had been awarded to the Democrats?
Fifty two per cent
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By Super Tuesday 2008, what percentage of delegates had been awarded to the Republican candidates?
Forty one per cent
111 of 397
How many winner takes all delegates primaries were there in Super Tuesday 2008?
112 of 397
How many winner takes all delegates contests in the 2008 Super Tuesday did McCain win?
113 of 397
How many primaries did McCain win on Super Tuesday in 2008?
114 of 397
How many delegates did John McCain win in the 2008 Super Tuesday?
Six hundred and two
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What happened with Michigan and Florida in the 2008 Super Tuesday?
They were punished by the DNC for scheduling primaries before the date permitted
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How many Democrat primaries took place on Super Tuesday in 2008?
117 of 397
How many primaries did Obama win on Super Tuesday in 2008?
118 of 397
How many primaries did Clinton win on Super Tuesday in 2008?
119 of 397
Give examples of some of the states won by Hilary Clinton in the 2008 Super Tuesday contest?
California, New Jersey and New York
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In the 11 days following Super Tuesday in 2008, how many primaries did Obama win in a row?
121 of 397
Who was selected by John McCain as his VP candidate?
122 of 397
What did the Huffington Post describe John McCain's decision to have Sarah Palin as his running mate as?
"His worst decision ever"
123 of 397
What was the voter turnout increase in Democratic Primaries from 2004 to 2008?
124 of 397
What is the average turnout increase in the Republican primaries 2000-2008?
Seven per cent
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Why was there such a steep increase in the Democrat Primary turnout between 2004-2008?
Because there was both a woman and a black man running for the presidency
126 of 397
What are the criticisms of primaries and caucuses?
They have a low level of turnout, voter fatigue, no peer review, Iowa and New Hampshire are unrepresentative, open primaries encourage wrecking tactics and there is an advantage to those with financial resources
127 of 397
What are the four stages of the presidential elections in order?
Primaries and caucuses, national party conventions, general election campaigns and election day
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What is the function of primaries and caucuses?
To show popular support for candidates, choose delegates to attend the national party conventions
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What is the function of the national party convention?
To choose a presidential candidate, choose VP candidates and decide on a party platform
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What is the function of the general election campaign?
To campaign between the candidates of the parties
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What is the function of election day?
To elect a president and VP
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When do primaries and caucuses occur?
Late January to early June
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When does the NPC occur?
134 of 397
How long does the National Party Convention usually last for?
135 of 397
When does the general election campaign usually occur?
September, October or the first week of November
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When does the election day usually occur?
November or December
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When can states choose when to hold their presidential primaries?
Within a time period set by the national parties
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Why may some states choose to have primaries on the same date as one of their neighbouring states?
In order to create a regional primary
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How are most delegates awarded after primaries?
Proportionally based on how many votes the candidate won
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What are winner takes all primaries?
Where in certain states the person who wins that primary takes all of the available delegates
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What party uses winner takes all primaries?
142 of 397
Name some states that are winner takes all states
Florida, Ohio, Montana, New Jersey, South Dakota, Arizona, Nebraska and Delaware
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In the 36 hours after Kerry's win in Iowa, how much did his campaign gain in campaign contributions?
Five hundred thousand
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What are the suggested replacements of the primaries and caucuses?
A national primary and regional primaries held weeks between each other and with the order determined in a draw
145 of 397
Who is the candidate who becomes the nominee at the National Party Convention?
The candidate who has won the most delegate votes
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How is the number of delegates per state decided?
By considering the state population, the number of elected officials in office and the state's past support of party candidates
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How many delegates attended the NPC in 2012?
148 of 397
How many Republican delegates were needed in order to be nominated in 2012?
149 of 397
How many Republican delegates were pledged in 2012?
150 of 397
How many Republican delegates were unpledged in 2012?
Four hundred and fifteen
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What party has unpledged delegates?
152 of 397
Which party has superdelegates?
153 of 397
How many delegates attended the NPC in 2012?
154 of 397
How many Democrat delegates were needed to be nominated in 2012?
155 of 397
Where was the Republican National Party Convention held in 2004?
156 of 397
Where was the 2004 Democrat NPC held?
157 of 397
Where was the 2008 Republican NPC held?
158 of 397
Where was the 2008 Democrat NPC held?
159 of 397
How is the venue of the NPC decided?
At each party's national committee
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What are the informal functions of the NPC?
To promote party unity, to enthuse party faithful's and to enthuse voters
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What is a criticism of the NPC?
It is not needed as with committed delegates, you know before the convention who will win
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Give an example of the pointless nature of the NPC
In 2004 there were 4,322 delegates to the NPC, Kerry needed 2,162 to win nomination and 4 months prior to the convention he had 2,000
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What was the 1976 Republican NPC like?
164 of 397
Who were the rivalling candidates for the 1976 Republican NPC?
Ford and Reagan
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Who won at the 1976 Republican NPC and by how many votes?
Ford by 17 votes
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What happens if no candidate wins an absolute majority in the NPC?
They continue balloting until one does
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What happens to committed delegates in the second balloting stage of the Convention?
They become free
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In the first 13 elections of the 20th century how many times were more than one ballot needed for either party?
169 of 397
During 1952-2004 how many times was more than one ballot needed at either party's NPC?
170 of 397
What was special about the NPC in 2008?
It was the first time a candidate has announced his VP choice electronically
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What percentage of democratic delegates in 2008 were superdelegates?
172 of 397
What happened on the first day of the Republican NPC in 2008?
It was interrupted by hurricane Gustav
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How many electoral college votes did Obama win in 2008?
174 of 397
How many electoral votes did McCain win in 2008?
175 of 397
What percentage of the vote did Obama win in 2008?
176 of 397
What was the turnout of the presidential election in 2008?
177 of 397
How many candidates took part in the 2008 election?
178 of 397
How many Democrat candidates took part in the 2008 election?
179 of 397
How many Republican candidates took part in the 2008 election?
180 of 397
What was the top PAC in 2008?
The National Association of Realtors
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How much money did the National Association of Realtors PAC donate?
182 of 397
How many states changed from red to blue in 2008?
183 of 397
Which nine states turned from red to blue in 2008?
Colorado, Florida, Indiana, Iowa, Nevada, New Mexico, North Carolina, Ohio and Virginia
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In how many elections has Ohio voted for the winning presidential candidate?
185 of 397
Name some reasons why Obama won the presidency in 2008?
The two term itch, presidency of GWB, right-track-wrong-track perception, the economy, the Palin effect and effectiveness of Obama's campaign
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How many local offices did Obama have in New Mexico?
187 of 397
How many local offices in New Mexico did McCain have in the 2008 election?
"About a dozen"
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How many local offices did Obama have in North Carolina in 2008?
189 of 397
How many local offices did McCain have in 2008 in North Carolina?
190 of 397
What percentage of people in 2008 felt that McCain had unfairly attacked Obama?
191 of 397
Is the electoral college direct or indirect?
192 of 397
Why is the electoral college indirect?
Voters choose Electors who in turn decide upon the presidency themselves
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How many Electoral College votes does a candidate need to win to become president?
To hundred and seventy
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If the Electoral College cannot reach a majority, who selects the president?
195 of 397
How many votes did GWB have in comparison to Al Gore in the 2000 election?
Half a million less
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How many representatives for the HoR does California have?
197 of 397
How many representatives does Alaska have for the HoR?
198 of 397
How can the people protest against the action of a president?
In mid terms they can vote more members of the opposing party into either house, thus making it difficult for the president to pass policy
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Give an example of the people protesting over the actions of a president through elections?
The 2010 mid terms where the public seemed to protest over Obamacare and the HoR had a republican majority
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How many Senators are there per state in the US?
201 of 397
How many electors does each state have?
The same amount as their amount of senators and representatives they have combined
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Which state has the most electors?
203 of 397
How many electors does California have?
204 of 397
What are electors?
The people who decide on behalf of their states votes who to vote for as president
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What is a benefit of electors?
They act as a check on the possibly ill advised votes of the public
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Who established the electoral college?
The founding fathers
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Who announces the result of the presidential election?
The current VP
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When is the result of the presidential election usually announced?
209 of 397
How many electors are there in total?
210 of 397
Give an example of a contributor to a candidate having influence in policy
Hilary Clinton using Haim Saban in her Israeli policy despite him donating ten million to her foundation and six million to her personally and working in the media not politics
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What are faithless electors?
Electors who choose to not support the winner of their state's election
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Why does the electoral college distort the popular vote?
The winner of that state gets all of the electors, despite however small the margin of the win was
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Give an example of the electoral college distorting the popular vote
In 2000 Gore won the popular vote but got fewer ECVs than Bush
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What is the only way that third party candidates may fare well in an election?
If their support is concentrated in one region
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In 1992 what percentage of the popular vote did Ross Perot win?
Nineteen per cent
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How many ECVs did Ross Perot win in 1992?
217 of 397
Why did Ross Perot not fare well in the electoral college?
His support was dispersed
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How many electors at least does every state get?
219 of 397
What is the problem with states having at least three ECVs?
Small states often have more ECVs per voter than bigger states
220 of 397
What are the benefits of the electoral college?
It preserves the voice of small-population states and promotes a two horse race
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Why hasn't the electoral college been changed?
Because it is written in the constitution and it would require a hefty majority to change it
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What is needed to amend the constitution?
A two thirds majority in both houses
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What are the possible ways of reforming the electoral college?
The maine system, allocation of ECVs in each state in proportion to the popular vote, the automatic plan and the direct election plan
224 of 397
What is the Maine system of reforming the electoral college?
Involves awarding one vote to a candidate for each congressional district that they win and two votes to the state wide winner
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What is a criticism of the maine system of reforming the electoral college?
Results would only be marginally different
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What would be a benefit of allocating ECVs in each state based on the popular vote?
It would be much fairer for third parties
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What is the automatic plan of reforming the electoral college?
It would get rid of electors and make the allocation of ECVs purely automatic
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What would the automatic plan combat?
229 of 397
What is the direct election plan?
A system much resembling AV with or without the use of the electoral college
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How many ECVs did Obama win in 2008?
231 of 397
How many ECVs did McCain win in 2008?
232 of 397
In 2004 what percentage of voters identified with one of the two major parties?
233 of 397
What percentage of people in 2004 called themselves a Democrat?
234 of 397
What percentage of people in 2004 called themselves a Republican?
235 of 397
What percentage of Democrats in 2000 voted for Gore?
236 of 397
What percentage of Republicans voted for Bush in 2000?
237 of 397
In presidential elections between 1952 and 2004 how many times did the party which managed to gain the highest support from its own party win?
12 out of 14
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Which gender is more likely to be registered to vote?
239 of 397
Which gender tends to turn out in highest numbers on election day?
240 of 397
Which party to women tend to support?
241 of 397
In the eleven elections between 1964 to 2004, how many times did women support the Democrats?
242 of 397
Give an example of women supporting the Democrats in an election
Supporting Kerry 51% in 2004
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What percentage of women's vote did Obama win in 2008?
244 of 397
Why might African Americans support the Democrats?
FDR's New Deal, Kennedy and Johnson's civil rights laws etc
245 of 397
Since 1980 what has the African American vote for the Democrats never dropped below?
Eight three per cent
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What percentage of African American votes did Obama win in 2008?
247 of 397
Which minority is the biggest in the USA?
248 of 397
Which party do Cuban Americans tend to support?
249 of 397
Which party do the majority of Hispanics tend to support?
250 of 397
In 1992, what percentage of the Hispanic vote did Bush Snr win?
251 of 397
In 2008 what percentage of the Hispanic vote did Obama win?
252 of 397
What percentage of the Hispanic vote did GWB win in 2004?
253 of 397
Which party do protestants tend to support?
254 of 397
What party do Catholics tend to vote for?
255 of 397
Which party do Jews tend to vote for?
256 of 397
What correlation between religion and parties has arisen?
The amount of church attendance and voting Republican
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Out of four, how many Evangelical Christians voted Republican?
Three in four
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Which class group is most likely to support the Republicans?
259 of 397
Which economic groups did Clinton win the greatest support from 1992-1996?
Those earning under $15,000 and those earning over $100,000
260 of 397
In 2000 what percentage of the poorest votes did Gore win?
261 of 397
What percentage of the wealthiest votes did Bush win in 2000?
262 of 397
What region tends to support the Democrats?
263 of 397
What is the issue with the Northeast?
It is a declining region
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What region tends to support the Republicans?
265 of 397
Which coast tends to support the Democrats?
266 of 397
What region has become a battleground in modern elections?
267 of 397
Which city is essential in winning the white house?
268 of 397
In the past 12 elections, how many of the winners have won in Missouri?
269 of 397
In 2008 what percentage of people cited the economy as the main issue of the election?
270 of 397
What percentage of McCain's voters were excited at the prospect of his victory?
271 of 397
What fraction of those who voted for Obama said they were excited at the prospect of his victory?
272 of 397
What percentage of people in 2008 felt that Palin was not qualified to govern if necessary?
273 of 397
When was the Federal Campaign Act passed?
274 of 397
Which candidate raised and spent more money than any other in history?
275 of 397
What were the aims of FECA?
To reduce candidates' reliance on a few very wealthy donors, to equalise the amount of money spent by both candidates and try and prevent cash for influence
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What are a few very wealthy donors referred to as?
277 of 397
What did FECA limit individual contributions to?
One thousand dollars
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What did FECA limit corporate contributions to?
Five thousand dollars
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What did FECA ban?
280 of 397
What was candidates spending in primaries and caucuses limited to under FECA?
281 of 397
What was candidates' spending in the general election limited to by FECA?
282 of 397
What body was established under FECA?
The Federal Election Commission
283 of 397
What did Buckley v Valeo rule?
That those who do not seek matching funds were not bound by limits imposed under FECA
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What type of a loophole was created by FECA?
A soft money loophole
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What is soft money?
Money given to the parties by wealthy individuals, corporations and trade unions. Used for grass roots organising, get out and vote drives and issue ads that don't endorse one candidate and thus aren't regulated
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How strong a power did FECA have to reprimand candidates if they exceeded spending limits?
287 of 397
What was the focal point of John McCain in the 2000 Republican bid for the nomination?
Campaign finance reform
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Which politician supported McCain in his calls for campaign finance reform?
Democrat Russ Feingold
289 of 397
What did the efforts of McCain and Feingold result in?
The Bipartisan Campaign Finance Reform Act
290 of 397
When was the BCRA passed?
291 of 397
Who signed BCRA into law?
292 of 397
What is BCRA also known as?
The McCain-Feingold Act
293 of 397
What did the McCain-Feingold Act do?
Banned soft money, individual contributions increased to 2,000, labour unions and corporations forbidden from funding, fundraising on federal property forbidden and use of corporate and labour union money to broadcast ads using candidate forbidden
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In what Supreme Court case was the McCain-Feingold Act upheld?
McConnell V. FEC
295 of 397
Who was McConnell in the McConnell v. FEC case?
296 of 397
Name someone who is opposed to the McCain-Feingold Act
297 of 397
Which election was the most expensive in US history?
The 2004 election
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What does the fact that the 2004 election was the most expensive show?
That the McCain-Feingold Act has not worked and that there are still loopholes
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What are the loopholes to the McCain-Feingold Act?
It increased individual donations, independent PACs can avaoid the ban on soft money as long as they don't promote or denote a candidate
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Can you recieve federal campaign funds?
Yes, on each tax return the citizen is asked if they would like to donate $3 to the presidential campaign fund, the money collected by this is then given to the candidates equally
301 of 397
Give an example of federal campagin funds
McCain receiving $84m in 2008
302 of 397
In September 2008, how much did Obama raise?
303 of 397
By the first week of October, how much had Obama spent on TV ads in North Carolina alone?
Over five million
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By how much did Obama outspend McCain on TV ads in Florida and Virginia?
Three to one
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What happened to Florida and Virginia in 2008 after Obama's ad campaigns?
They switched from supporting McCain to Obama
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Who raised the lowest amount in 2008?
307 of 397
What party was Alan Keyes formerly a member of?
308 of 397
What party did Alan Keyes run for in 2008?
The Constitution Party
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How much did Alan Keyes raise in 2008?
310 of 397
What does mass media refer to?
Methods of communication that can reach a large and potentially unlimited number of people simultaneuosly
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What is print journalism?
Newspapers and the weeklies
312 of 397
Give an example of print journalism
The New York Times, the Washington Post, Time and Newsweek
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What is the only national daily newspaper in the US?
314 of 397
Does the printed press have more of an influence in the UK or US?
315 of 397
What type of channels are referred to as 'old television'?
316 of 397
Give an example of a terrestrial channel
ABC, NBC, CBS and PBS
317 of 397
What types of channels are referred to as 'new television'?
318 of 397
Give an example of cable channels
FOX, MSBNC and CNN
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What is an issue with FOX?
It is highly biased towards the Republicans
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When was the first ever TV commercial used?
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How long do campaign commercials in the USA last?
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Where is more money on commericals usually spent?
In swing states
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What do Psephologists argue about the impact of ads?
They do little in the way of conversion but instead act more as to further convince someone of their beliefs
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Give an example of a famous and impacting attack ad
Johnson's daisy girl commercial
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What happened in Johnson's daisy girl commercial?
A little girl is seen picking daisies and then a nuclear explosion occurs
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Give an example of an attack ad going wrong
Bush Senior's Willie Horton
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What happened in the Willie Horton ad?
Bush attacks his opponent for giving ******, kidnapper and attempted murderer Willie Horton weekend passes from jail
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Why did the Willie Horton ad backfire?
Because Horton was black and thus Bush's campaign was accused of being racist
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Give the most famous example of a televised debate
The Nixon JFK debate
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Who is the only third party candidate that has ever been allowed to participate in the televised debates?
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What year did Ross Perot run for president?
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Who ran as VP for Ross Perot?
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What was the problem with James Stockdale?
He forgot to turn his hearing aid on during the televised debates
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What are the unwritten rules of televised debates?
Style is more important than substance. verbal gaffes can be costly, sound bites are useful and debates are often much harder for incumbents
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Give the arguments that televised debates are declining in significance?
There is rarely a knock out blow, viewing figures have declined and they only confirm feelings, they do not convert people
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How many people tuned in to watch the 2008 second debate?
Sixty three million
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How many people tuned in to watch the vice-presidential debate in 2008?
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What was the most watched televised debate in the USA?
The 1980 Carter-Reagan debate
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What is selective exposure?
Where candidates choose to represent themselves in media bodies that represent their views, not challenge them
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What is selective perception?
Where individuals mentally edit the media they are exposed to, filtering out content that doesn't fit their own ideas
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What is selective retention?
Where people tend to forget the media content that challenge their views whilst retaining material that can be used to justify their opinions
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How did John McCain alienate younger viewers?
He admitted that he was not internet savvy and did not know how to use emails
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How did McCain attempt to fix the problem of alienating voters?
His campaign purchased certain words on Google and Yahoo to direct internet traffic to his campaign
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Who did Obama employ to help with social media?
Facebook's Chris Hughes
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What did Chris Hughes do for Obama's campaign?
Revolutionised his website and created his own social networking site
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What was the name of the social networking site that Chris Hughes created for Obama?
347 of 397
Who was the pioneer of internet usage in the presidential campaign?
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What has been the role of Anita Dunn in the media?
She has led a offensive against Fox News, describing it as a 'wing of the Republican Party' and banning them from presidential interviews
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Who is Anita Dunn?
Obama's White House Communications Direct
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What do many argue that the immense number of elections in the USA leads to?
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How many positions in the USA are decided using elections?
Five hundred thousand
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Give an example of small role that is elected
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How easy are state constitutions to amend?
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What are initiatives and propositions?
Where in 23 states and Washington DC, voters may be asked to vote on issues that have not been addressed by the state legislature but that ordinary voters feel strongly about
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What are initiatives and propositions similar to?
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Who can start an initiative or proposition?
Any citizen over the age of 18
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What is different between referendums and initiatives and propositions?
Referendums are started by government, initiatives are started by the people
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Where was proposition 8 initiated?
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When was proposition 8 initiated?
In the November 2008 election
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Why did proposition 8 come about?
A Californian court ruled that an article of the state's constitution which stated that marriage was between a man and a woman was ruled unconstitutional
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What was proposition 8 aiming to do?
Overturn the ruling and ensure that the constitution is amended to say that marriage is only between a man and a woman
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What was the result of proposition 8?
It was passed
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What are recall elections?
The election in order to remove officials from their office before their term has passed
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How many states hold recall elections?
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What percentage of signatures from the registered electorate need to be found in order for a recall election to be initiated?
Twenty five per cent
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How many votes does one have in a recall election?
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What is the first vote used for in a recall election?
To decide if the office holder should be recalled
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What is the second vote used for in a recall election?
To choose the potential replacement of the office holder
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What does the winning candidate in a recall election do?
Serves the rest of their predecessors term
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Give an example of a recall election
The recall of Governor Gray Davis in California
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When was Gray Davis' recall election?
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What was the result of Gray Davis' recall election?
He was recalled
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What was the percentage of the electorate who voted to recall Governor Gray Davis?
Fifty five per cent
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Who was chosen to replace Gray Davis as Governor of California?
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What was the participation percentage average in the 60s USA?
Sixty two per cent
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What is the average turnout to elections in the USA nowadays?
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What is the average turnout to midterms?
Thirty eight per cent
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What was the average turnout to midterms in the 1960s?
Forty five per cent
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What fraction of Americans move to a new location every 5 years?
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Who was the Motor Voter Act aimed at?
People who were not sufficiently motivated to vote
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Why is there a lack of universal suffrage in the states?
The states themselves can choose what the voter requirements are
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Give an example of a midterm having no impact
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What does state law in New Hampshire say about the presidential election?
That they must hold their primary before any other state
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What was the date of the first primary or caucus in 2008?
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What date was Super Tuesday in 2008?
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How many states took part in Super Tuesday this year?
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What date was the first primary held on this year?
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What date was Super Tuesday held on this year?
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What is a proposition?
A blanket term for any ballot measure to be voted on by the people. It can be an initiative or a referendum
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What was proposition 65 in California?
A proposition to ensure that business owners warn customers to the existence of carcinogenic chemicals around them
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What is a referendum?
A direct vote in which an entire electorate is asked to either accept or reject a proposal
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What are initiatives?
They provide a way for a petition signed by a certain number of registered voters to force a public vote on a proposition
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Originally, how many people did the founding fathers want on representative to represent?
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If nowadays there was a representative for every 30,000 people, how many representatives would there be?
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How many people does the average constituency have?
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How many representatives does Vermont have?
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Other cards in this set
How much has Stephen Spielberg donated to the Clinton's in total?
Nearly 2 and a half million
Where did the Clintons' fundraising begin?
How much did Bill Clinton raise for his 1974 congressional bid?
How much has Hilary Clinton raised by May 2016 for her presidential bid?