US Pressure Groups -REVISION QUIZ

What is meant by Pluralism?
The view that democracies power should be dispersed among a variety of economic and ideological pressure groups and shouldn’t be held by a single elite or group of elites.
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What is meant by Elitism?
Elitism is the belief that a society should be led by an elite, or group of elites. Competition for influence between pressure groups is often very unequal and favours the elites with more wealth, power and influence.
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What functions do pressure groups fulfil?
They represent the views of ordinary US citizens between elections and allow participation of them. They educate the public about issues not addressed by government. They attempt to shape, monitor and scrutinise the political agenda of government.
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What is an institutional pressure group? And, into what four categories do they divide?
Seek to represent other organisations and groups. Business/Trade Groups, Industrial Labour Unions, Agricultural Unions/Groups, Professional Groups and Intergovernmental Groups (lobby one level of government on behalf of another).
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What is a membership pressure group? And, into what categories do the divide?
Seek to represent individual Americans rather than organisations and groups. Single-Issue Groups, Ideological Groups, Group Rights Groups, Public Interest Groups and Think-Tanks.
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What three reasons are given for people joining pressure groups?
Material Benefits – Aims to gain something out of it, Purposive Benefits - 'feel good' factor, and Solidarity Benefits - People join pressure groups to interact with line-minded people, taking part in group activities.
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What is a PAC?
Political Action Committee. An organisation that raises money privately to influence elections or legislation, particularly at the Federal level. Pressure groups that collect money from their members and then give it to the candidates and parties.
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What is meant by “soft money”?
When cash is contributed to a political party with no limits attached to the amount that can be received. The funds can come from individuals and political action committees.
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What is K-Street?
K-Street is known as a centre for numerous think tanks, lobbyists, and advocacy groups in Washington D.C.
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What kind of activities do pressure groups take part in?
Electioneering, publicity, lobbying, grass-roots. Campaigning, representation, scrutiny of government, providing information, membership/participation and accountability.
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What is meant by Iron Triangles?
Policy-making relationship between congressional committees, the bureaucracy and interest groups. Pressure groups may encourage the existence of strong iron triangles between a PG, government department/agency and congressional committees.
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What is meant by revolving door syndrome?
Many pressure groups work through hired lobbyists. Many of these lobbyists are former members of Congress or former congressional staff members. They have come back through a revolving door into politics after an election defeat.
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Why are pressure groups good for democracy?
So that people can join a group in which they feel they can be represented in. Gives voters more choice than just the two main political parties, due to the voter spectrum being very broad.
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Why are pressure groups bad for democracy?
Prevention of good, unelected, buying political influence, insiders, corruption, minority viewpoints take precedence over public interest, Iron triangles, corporatism, elitism, revolving door syndrome, unlawful and New Right public choice approach.
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What is a Super PAC?
A political action committee that can raise unlimited funds to spend on political messages and activities that are not connected to a particular candidate.
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What impact has Citizens United had?
Citizens United has now affected campaign finance, meaning that there is no limit as to the total amount that someone can donate to candidates, as there used to be a total limit in which they could only donate to a certain amount of candidates p/a.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What is meant by Elitism?

Back

Elitism is the belief that a society should be led by an elite, or group of elites. Competition for influence between pressure groups is often very unequal and favours the elites with more wealth, power and influence.

Card 3

Front

What functions do pressure groups fulfil?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What is an institutional pressure group? And, into what four categories do they divide?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What is a membership pressure group? And, into what categories do the divide?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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