urban issues and challenges - key terms

key terms innit

brownfield site
land that has been used, abandoned and now awaits further use; commonly found across urban areas and in the inner city
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dereliction
abandoned buildings and wasteland
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economic oppurtunities
chances for people to improve their standard of living through employment
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greenfield site
a plot of land, often in a rural or on the edge of an urban area that has not yet been subject to any building development
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urbanisation
the increase in the population of people living in towns and cities
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birth rate
the number of live births per 1000 people per year
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death rate
the number of deaths per 1000 people per year
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natural increase
the growth of population resulting from an excess of births over deaths
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natural decrease
the decrease of population resulting from an excess of deaths over births
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megacity
a city with a population over 10 million
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rural-urban migration
the movement of people from the countryside to towns and cities where they wish to live permanently
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life expectancy
average number of years a person is expected to live
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standard of living
the degree of wealth and material comfort available to people
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GDP
total value of goods and services produced in a country
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literacy rate
percentage of people who have basic reading and writing skills
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quality of life
standard of health, comfort and happiness experienced by people
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development
progress of a country in terms of economic growth, use of technology and human welfare
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primary jobs
extracting raw materials from coast
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secondary jobs
manufacturing goods from raw material
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tertiary jobs
providing a service
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informal economy
economy that is not taxed nor monitored by the government
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formal economy
economy that is taxed and monitored by the government
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rural-urban fringe
a zone of transition between the urban area and countryside, where there is often competition for land use
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social deprivation
the degree to which an individual or area is deprived of services, decent housing, adequate income and local employment
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squatter settlement
an area of poor quality housing that develops spontaneously and illegally in a city in a LIC
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urban sprawl
the unplanned growth of urban areas into the surrounding countryside
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urban regeneration
the revival of old parts of an urban area by installing modern facilities or opting for redevelopment
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urban greening
the process of increasing and preserving open space such as public parks in urban areas
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sustainable urban living
where there is minimal damage to the environment, the economic base is sound with resources allocated fairly and jobs secure, and a strong sense of community; the use of renewable, accessible resources, energy efficiency, use of public transport,
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

abandoned buildings and wasteland

Back

dereliction

Card 3

Front

chances for people to improve their standard of living through employment

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

a plot of land, often in a rural or on the edge of an urban area that has not yet been subject to any building development

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

the increase in the population of people living in towns and cities

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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