Unit 5 and 6 Germany

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How did the Allies go about de-Nazification?
·from Summer of 1945= stern screening of Nazis ·introduced detailed questionnaire which sorted internees into 5 categories: from 'major offenders' to 'exonerated persons', those in first 3 categories had to go to court
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How did the US Zone implement de-Nazification?
·Americans judged most sternly ·13.7% were put into categories 1-3 ·51.1% into category 4 ·all those who were party members before 1937 were dismissed
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How did the British Zone implement de-Nazification?
·pragmatic approach ·only 13% of Germans screened in their zone were punished ·British Military Officials often permitted ex-Nazis to assume leadership roles in their zone
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How did the French Zone implement de-Nazification?
·relatively small & French manpower was limited ·2.6% were punished
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How did the Soviet Zone implement de-Nazification?
·by early 1948: number of 'war criminals' had ben executed, leading Nazi functionaries had been imprisoned & punished, Nazi property & estates had been confiscated & redistributed ·ex-Nazi Party members were later needed as experts & were reappointed
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What were the issues with de-Nazification?
·Allies did not have staff to pursue task ·too many 'bigger fish' got away ·questionnaire system created masses of paperwork ·different approached by Allies undermined initial aim ·1947-48: Allies' interests moved from de-Nazification to Cold War
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What was the JCS1067 directive?
·set out US occupation policy right at the start ·sought to remove former Nazis from all positions in society
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Was the JCS1067 policy undermined?
·policy appeared to be impracticable ·deNazification turned into a policy
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How did the Western and Soviet Zones differ in their treatment of former Nazis?
·Western Zones used Frageboden & it was hard for them to convict people as many former Nazis downplayed roles through 'persil certificates' & affidavits ·Soviet Zone used mass internment (reused former camps) ·'nominal' Nazis tended to commit to
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Did the Soviet Zone support decentralisation?
·accepted the principle ·distrusted idea of genuine federal structure ·established range of centralised authoritird ·regional authorities were controlled by Communists & dissolved in 1952
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How did the US Zone go about decentralisation?
·strongest supporter of decentralisation ·May 1946- free federal state elections ·first free lander states
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How did the British Zone go about decentralisation?
·wary of giving political freedom & powers to Germans ·used own centralised administration ·financial costs encouraged decentralisation ·May 1947- first elections for federal state parliaments ·3 Lander states
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Did the French Zone support decentralisation?
·blocked any attempt of other 2 powers for a centralised administration of Germany ·tight rule & economically cut off ·stubbornly resisted the reestablishing of democratic parties ·March 1947- Lander elections were permitted
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Did the Soviet Zone support democratisation?
·June 1945- permitted re-establishment of non-fascist democratic parties·1946- the KPD & SPD merged to form the SED (legitimised the KPD) ·'bloc' parties were all under the control of the SED
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Did the British Zone support democratisation?
·15 September 1945- BMG issued a directive ·Late 1945: agreed to 'license' formation of new democratic parties ·KPD was banned
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Did the French Zone support democratisation?
·15 September 1945- BMG issued a directive ·Late 1945: agreed to 'license' formation of new democratic parties ·KPD was banned
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Did the US Zone support democratisation?
·15 September 1945- BMG issued a directive ·Late 1945: agreed to 'license' formation of new democratic parties ·KPD was banned
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What happened on the 15 September 1945 in the Western Zones?
·British military Government issued a directive: ·political parties can be formed ·parties already formed can unite with others
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How/why was the SED created?
·communists were not winning sufficient popularity to secure a mass political base ·Soviet pressure increased to bring about political merger of the KPD & the SPD (its rival)W
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What events in 1947 exerted significant influence?
·the revival of the Greek Cold War ·the declaration of the `Truman Doctrine' ·The Marshall Plan
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What was the Truman Doctrine and why was it introduced?
·Truman's policy towards Soviet Union was 'containment' ·USA built up 'sphere of influence'
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What was the crisis of 1947?
·USSR complained about the British troops supporting the Monarchists in the Greek civil war ·Truman paid for British troops
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Why was Marshall Aid implemented?
·Truman sent George Marshall to assess the economic state of Europe & he found a ruined economy (they owed USA $11.5 billion & extreme shortages of goods, bread & coal) ·once countries were stable their currencies would be tied to the American $
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What was the reaction to Marshall Aid?
·forced any European country to denounce communism & socialism ·all countries requesting aid had to join the OEEC ·all had to trade with each other, accept capitalism & agree their currencies would be tied to the American $
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What was Stalin's reaction to Marshall Aid?
·saw the plan as 'dollar imperialism' ·believed the US was trying to bribe counties to join the American state in the developing Cold War & global currency war ·establish Cominform
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What was Cominform?
·Communist Information Bureau ·strengthen links between Communist parties in different countries
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What was Comecon?
·Council for mutual economic aid ·set up in Jan 1949 ·to encourage each country to specialise in certain products
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What benefits did the new currency, the DM, bring?
·black market collapsed almost immediately ·workers' absenteeism plummeted ·stimulated business to increase production & selling ·complemented the Marshall Plan & resurrected trade
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What was the Soviet Zone's reaction to the new currency in the Western Zones?
·introduced Ostmark ·Berlin Blockade June ·resulted in the Berlin Airlift
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What was the result of the Berlin Blockade?
·was the occasion not the fundamental cause ·Berlin was officially divided into East & West ·Germany was split into two new states: The BRD (German Federal Republic) and the DDR (German Democratic Republic)
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Card 2

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How did the US Zone implement de-Nazification?

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·Americans judged most sternly ·13.7% were put into categories 1-3 ·51.1% into category 4 ·all those who were party members before 1937 were dismissed

Card 3

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How did the British Zone implement de-Nazification?

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Card 4

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How did the French Zone implement de-Nazification?

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Card 5

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How did the Soviet Zone implement de-Nazification?

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