Unit 2; Social Influence - Studies

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Jenness (1932)
Ps were to estimate how many beans were inside in a jar. He grouped the same Ps together and got them to discuss the contents. Later they were separated and asked their opinions. He found that when we are unsure, we think the majority figure is right
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Sherif (1935)
Ps sat in a dark room and looked at a pinpoint light that appeared to move. They were asked to estimate the distance it moved. Again, when put in rooms together, their guesses coverage towards a group norm.
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Asch (1956)
123 ♂ American Ps were tested, each one put in a room full of confederates and asked to state which of 3 lines was the longest. All the confederates said the wrong answer. 36.8% of Ps conformed and said the wrong answer.
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Milgram (1963)
40 ♂ Ps were told that they were investigating how punishment affects learning. There were two confederates: an experimenter, and a 'learner'. Fake shocks were administered to the 'learner'. 65% were obedient.
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Zimbardo (1973)
21 ♂ college students were randomly assigned to be either prisoners and guards. Prisoners were put under a mock arrest and were held in a mock prison. Within the start of the Ps fell into their roles and the guards acted sadistically towards prisoner
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Latane and Wolf
Three factors that will influence someone to conform: 1) Strength 2) Status and Knowledge 3) Immediacy
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Pronin et al. (2007)
Meta analysis of 5 studies, looking for similarities. Found that people in general think that other people are more conformist than they are.
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Griskevicius
Looked at male and females when looking for a male, he found that women tend to conform more and more when looking for a mate whereas men tend to go out of their way to be more individualist.
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Hornsey et al (2003)
Conducted an experiment on cheating; found that people that resist the urge to cheat have a stronger moral position.
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Nail et al. (2000)
Looked at non-conformist personalities; found that people with non-conformist personalities prefer their independence.
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Zimbardo. (2007)
Found that people see some who resit conformity as Heroes, others as rebels or as anarchists. If people think someone has suffered or sacrificed, they are seen as heroes; but if they have benefited from it, we see them as the opposite.
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Bickman (1974)
A field experiment to test Milgrams study. 153 participants in the streets of New York were randomly selected, there were 3 researches that gave 3 orders: 1)pick up the bag 2)give a stranger change 3)Move on the opposite side if pole. Most obeyed PC.
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Orne and Holland. (1968)
Claimed that Ps knew to distrust the investigations as the true meaning may be disguised.
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Hofling et al. (1966)
Study was held in real-life setting; showed that 95% (21 out of 22) nurses took orders over the phone from an unknown Doctor, even though it is prohibited to do so.
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Rank and Jacobsen. (1975)
Study held in real-life setting, similar to Hofling et al (1966), but this time nurses to consult with peers and used a familiar drug, finding that 89% refused.
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David Mandal (1998)
Challenged Milgrams research as an explanation of real-life atrocities, claiming that Milgrams research offers an alibi (excuse) for the obedience shown by Holocaust perpetration.
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Twenge et al. (2004)
Linked the external locus of control with depression as you feel victimized and so they blame others and don't face responsibility. Found correlation with external locus of control with achievement.
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Moscovici (1969)
172 Ps were tested in groups of 6, shown 36 slides that were shades of blue. In each group there were 2 confederates who called some slides green. In 8.4% of the trails, Ps agreed they were green and only 1.3% in the other condition.
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Hogg et al. (1998)
Identified 4 features of independent behaviour that can maximise the chance of social change: 1) minority not acting on self gain 2) Minority have made sacrifice 3) likely to follow someone in similar class/age/gender 4) consistent to social trend
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Clark et al. (1994)
Made student durers watch 'Twelve Angry Men'. Some were given no information and some didn't know whether the durer changed their mind. Found they came to different conclusions, but when they changed them around, they changed their mins.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Ps sat in a dark room and looked at a pinpoint light that appeared to move. They were asked to estimate the distance it moved. Again, when put in rooms together, their guesses coverage towards a group norm.

Back

Sherif (1935)

Card 3

Front

123 ♂ American Ps were tested, each one put in a room full of confederates and asked to state which of 3 lines was the longest. All the confederates said the wrong answer. 36.8% of Ps conformed and said the wrong answer.

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

40 ♂ Ps were told that they were investigating how punishment affects learning. There were two confederates: an experimenter, and a 'learner'. Fake shocks were administered to the 'learner'. 65% were obedient.

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

21 ♂ college students were randomly assigned to be either prisoners and guards. Prisoners were put under a mock arrest and were held in a mock prison. Within the start of the Ps fell into their roles and the guards acted sadistically towards prisoner

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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