unit 2 questions

Questions Highworth Grammmar school for Exams 

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what is seed bank?
Seed is from as rare and threatened plant species are dried and stored so they will remain viable for many year.
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why are seed stored, instead of leaves and stems?
so that they can be regrown again and viable for many decades. Can't be used to produce next generation of individuals
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why are seed bank important?
they are important as it many plant have become endangered, therefore having a seed bank allows them to investigate, to see if they have any medicinal properties
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Why is DNA Barcoding important?
information can be used; to identify different life stages of the same plant/ to identify fragments of plant material/ in forensic investigation/ in verifying of herbal medicines and foodstuffs/ in biosecurity and trading of controlled species/in ice
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What is DNA barcode based on?
A standard short piece of DNA from particular locus on a particular chromosome is chosen, scientist then find the DNA for as many plants as possible
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What are the advantages of storing plants as seed rather than a whole plant?
Seeds are a convenient means of long term storage of genetic diversity, as the samples are small in size, are easily handled, require low maintenance and frequently remain viable for long periods. conditions of low temperature and less expensive
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Give example of three medicines (drugs) that come from plants
Garlic-Allicin-Kill some bacteria/ topotecan-Anticancer Agent- Chineese Happy Tree/ codeine-painkiller-opium poppy
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Give two reasons why many plant are becoming extinct?
forest are being cut down to provide timber/to clear building for houses/ create more farmland/ poor trying to make a living
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why is it important that different plant species do not become extinct, and are conserved?
as it is likely that among the plants being lost are plants containing useful medicines that we do not yet know about. Potentially have useful genes and alleles that can be transferred from species to species
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When Kew Gardens collect seeds for their seed bank, they take sample from different places rather than collecting seed from one place. Suggest why?
As there could be Genetic diversity within a species as they may have adapted to particular environment, therefore have different alleles.
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Give details of another useful product from plants, that is not is not drug or foodstuff
biofuels, clothing-cotton
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What is meant by the term 'medicinal properties'?
A plant that has curative, therapeutic and remedial
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It is mentioned in the article that smoking cause asthma? Give three trigger factors for asthma
Allergens, airways inflamed, exercise induced asthma
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Give 3 symptoms of Asthma
Breathlessness- able to inspire but not out well, wheezing, prolonged expiration and coughing, inflammation the lining and broncho constriction
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the above graph show the effect of tabbaco smoke on Asthma. State with use of graph
when you are exposed your are more likely to develop asthma, Boy with Asthma 6% above, girls 14% above. Also it seem girls are affected worse by exposure to smoke
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Describe the treatment for Asthma relievers> beta-agonist
they are BRONCHODILATORS, which relax muscles in the airway, may be short acting or long lasting, are usually inhaled as needed but sometimes taken orally
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Describe the treatment for Asthma preventors> Steroid (Corticosteroids)
that reduce inflammation, they work slowly but have long term effect on reducing the severity of asthma attacks.
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What are the 3 dangerous substances in Cigarette smoke? which of the cause asthma
Tar, nicotine and CO. Tar is the one that irritates the lining of the person
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Give other diseases caused by smoking?
Lung cancer- Tar has carcinogens like benzopyrene> mutation>inactivates p53 protein>uncontrolled division/ Emphysema
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Give two reason why it is better for an Asthma treatment to be inhaled rather than tablet?
more effective as it goes straight to the area and quicker to act relieve when happens
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Enphysema- Explain
Increase lung infection due to mucus that cannot be removed; lead to white phagocytic cells secreting an enzyme elastase that breaks down the elastin in the alveoli walls, Aveoli cannot stretch or coil, eventually burst=reduce SA gaseous exchange
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Chronic Brochitis
Increased production of mucus in trachea and Bronchitis from cilia being paralysed and the Tar for example builds up the mucus which cannot be moved. This causes persistent coughs that leads to scar tissue forming
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COPD, What does this stand for? Explain
Chronic obstructive pulmonary (respiratory) disease, Combination of Asthma, Chromic Bronchitis and Enphysema (PROGRESSIVE + IRREVERSIBLE)
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What is a drug?
a substance that alters the metabolism. Hence it alters physiology and may affect the behaviour of the person.
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pharmaceutical (drug) companies have to consider many factors before they decide whether to develop a compound for sale as a medicine. list 3 factors
The Side effects if it weighs up/ if it is better than other things for the same ailment the market/ the amount of money to produce/ safety of the drug
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what is the name given to the proccess of testing new drugs on Humans?
Clinical Trials
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Which Government body evaluates the effectiveness of new drugs?
NICE- National Institute for Clinical Excellence: if it is drug cost effective/ if it should be prescribed by NHS/ provides GUIDELINES/
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Aspirin is a PAINKILLER. Give a definition of this term
a drug or a medicine for relieving pain SYMPTOMS. do not kill microbes
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What is type of DRUG is Penicillin? what is it made from?
Penicillin is an ANTIBIOTIC, made from mould fungi
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What are the constituents of healthy diet?
Carbohydates- Respire to provide energy/Fats/protein/Vitamins/Minerals/Fibre/water
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respire to provide energy, for cell division, active transport, Synthesis of molecules
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Essential fatty acids-OILY FISH
to make cell membrane(linoleic). healthy functioning kidneys, immune system, circulatory system. Fish oil for development of brain and nerve tissue Need as human cannot make it OMEGA 3
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For insulating nerve endings, energy store, cushion for organs, as a source of fat-soluble vitamins
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Essential Amino Acids-MILK, EGG, CHEESE
Eight essential amino acids that we need that our body can not make
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as a source of amino acids, for growth and repair, to make new organelles, cell and tissue. muscle, haemoglobin, enzymes and antibodies, collagens.
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For hardening of bones, teeth and blood clotting. Protects against OSTEOPEROSIS
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For haemoglobin for oxygen transport
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phosphorus-MOST FOODS
For healthy bones and teeth. DNA, RNA, ADP, ATP. Cell membranes
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Turns carotene to VITAMIN A. Makes rhodosphin to rod cell in eye to see dim light. Maintaing epithelial growth. Antioxidants
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VItamin C- Citrus Fruits, green veg
Formation of collagen. For healthy skin, gums, blood vessels walls, tendons, ligaments and bones
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Vitamin D-UV light, Oily fish, liver, egg yolk, milk
is a hormone regulates uptake of of calcium from gut into blood. Protects against cancer and heart disease
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Potatoes, rice and wheat flour are foods we obtain from plants. which nutrients are they rich in? What are the nutrients needed for?
Carbohydrates- Best eaten as starch and not sugar/ respire to provide energy.e.g. for cell division, active transport, synthesis of molecules
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definition of PATHOGEN
a bacterium, virus, or other microorganism that can cause disease.
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definition of DECADE
A period of ten years
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definitions of MILLENNIA
A period of 10 thousand years
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a disease transmitted only by a specific kind of contact
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definition of IMMUNITY
the state of being immune from or insusceptible to a particular disease or the like.
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definition of DEVELOPING WORLD
A developing country, also called a less-developed country, is a nation with a low living standard, underdeveloped industrial base, and low Human Development Index relative to other countries
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definition of DRUG RESISTANT
when bacteria becomes insuceptible
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definition of INCIDENCE
the number of new cases of specific illness diagnosed and reported during a stated period of time
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definition of PREVALENCE
the number of current cases of a condition or illness at one time, no matter when it started. this term usually used to describe conditions that last al long time, or that are chronic
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the number of deaths from a specific cause per 1000 people in population per year. For example if 850 people in a population of 100000 died of TB in one year, the mortality rate is 8.5%
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definition of ENDEMIC
disease is one that is always present in particular area
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definition of EPIDEMIC
is a sudden outbreak of a disease that spreads rapidly in a area
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definition of PANDEMIC
is an outbreak of a disease that spreads rapidly across continents or across the whole world
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future reasons for a pandmic
containment-migration can lead to an outbreak/lack herd immunity so most can encounter new pathogen they are succeptible to/lack of vaccine
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Name 3 other infectious diseases not mentioned in the passage
cholera, bird flu, chicken pox
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What type of pathogen causes i)TB ii)HIV
TB caused by mycobacterium/mycobacterium bovis from unpasteurised milk ii) HIV-VIRUS
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Suggest why medicines from plants are preferable than synthetic products
It is cheaper to produce and is natural therefore may have less successful
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2 months old- Diptheria, tetanus, pertussis. polio, whooping cough and Haemophillus influenzae type B (Hib), Pneumococcal infection
DTa/IPV/Hib +Pneumococcal Conjugate vaccine (PCV)
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3 month old- Diptheria, tetanus, Pertussis, polio, and Haemophillus Influenzae Tyoe B (Hib), Meningitis
DTa/IPV/Hib +MenC
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4 months old-Diptheria, tetanus, Pertussis, polio and Haemophillus influenzae Type B, Meningitis C, Pneumococcal infection
DTa/IPV/Hib + MenC + PCV
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Around 12 months-Haemophillus Type B (Hib), Meningitis C
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Around 13 months-Diptheria, tetanus, Pertussis, polio, Measles, mumps and rubella
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3 years 4 months to 5 years old
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13 to 18 years-Tetanus, Diphtheria and polio
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Explain why most cases of TB arises in "deprived communities in developing world"
Spreads rapidly amongst people who live in overcrowded condition and amongst the malnourished
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what is the treatment for TB
ISONAZID-an antibiotic and is used over 6-9 months
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How to prevent HIV
screening for blood transfusions, using condoms during sexual intercourse, sterile needle, encourage to take HIV tests, encourage people that HIV to tell others they nay have come in contact with,ecourage mother with it not to breast feed
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What is DOTS? what is the advantage?
Direct observation therapy-where the person health is monitored, the Advantage of using DOTS is that the person is being monitored
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describe three ways which public awareness of TB can be increased.
Education, At appointments where doctor explain, In advertisements .e.g.posters
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Bacterial cells such as MYCOBACTERIUM are describe prokaryotic cells, what does that mean?
They have no nucleus
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How does TB spread?
Droplet infection, spread rapidly amongst people in a overcrowded areas and who are also malnourished, As well in UNPASTEURISED milk that has the bacterium mycobacterium bovid
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what are the symptoms of TB?
Fever, weight loss, persistent cough with blood in sputum, night sweats, fatigue, chest pain, infected lungs and other organs
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How is it diagnosed?
the MANOUX test is used to see if you have been exposed replace the HEAF TEST. A small amount of serum rubbed ion the under skin of the forearm, the extent of swelling measured for 72 hours. If positive there is further test taken, -=BCG vaccine
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Give two similarities between TB and Lung Cancer
persistent cough with blood and affects the lunged
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two differences between TB and Lung cancer
TB is a virus and Lung cancer is a cancer/ not passed by person to person lung cancer
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Explain why a vaccine for HIV has not been developed?
HIV infection no one recovers so there is no natural mechanism to imitate HIV destroys the immune system cells that are meant to fight against it Soon after infection, HIV inserts its genetic material into human cells, where it remain hidden from IS
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Describe 3 ways HIV is spread from person to person
unsterile syringe, unprotected Sex, breast milk from mother to child, across placenta
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Explain why AIDS sufferers are more likely to get TB
AID leads to the lost of T lymphocytes so the immune system cannot defend body from disease, therefore opportunistic diseases like TB infect the body. Making them more likely to get TB than anyone else as their protection is not good.
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non-specific defence mechanism(primary defences). what does this mean?
they always respond in the same way, regardless of the pathogen.e.g.unbroken skin/bllood clotting/hydrophyllic acid in the stomach/epithelium ofg the respiratory tract covered in mucus/the conjucnctiva memebrane covering the eye protected by tears
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what does the tears contain?
it contain a an enzyme called LYSOZYME, which digest bacterial cell walls
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Inflammation-another non-specific response
infected cell releases Histamine. Increasing blood flow to the area making it hot; blood clotting happens faster, whilst production of bacterium slows.capillary walls become more leaky and tissue fluid pores out and area swells
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what happens after the tissue fluid leaks out and areas swells?
Macrophages squeezes into the surrounding tissue, nuetrophils and macrophages by phagopcytosis ingeat and digest the pathogens.
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phagocytosis-specific response
carried out by neutrophils and moncytes that are macrophages. producesd inn the bone marrow. Damage cells and tissues release chemicals or cytokines tjat attract phagocytes. phagocytes recognise the bacteria and coat it in plasma protein.
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what happens after coated in the plasma proteins, called opsonins?
the phagocytes engulf the bacteria. the bacterium becomes enclosed in a membrane-coated vesicle called phagosome. lysosomes containg digestive enzymes move towards phagosome and break it down and release soluble products thay diffuse into cytoplasm
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definition of Agglutination
Antibodies can cause bacterial cells to clump together, which makes it easier for phagocytes to engulf them.
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definition of Preciptitation
antibodies can cause soluble soluble antigen to preciptitate out, so that they can be engulfed by phagocytes
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definition of Neutralisation
Antibodies can bind to toxins produced by foreign cells, neutralising them so that they do not cause harm
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defintion of Lysis
antibodies cnan bind to foreign cells. the antibodies then attract enzymes which attach to the antiboduies and digest to foreing cells
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definition of Opsosins
opsosins include antibbodies and some other molecules of the immune system. A special attachment site on the antibody's constant region binds to a receptor site on the plasma membrane of phagocytic cell,
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what does the variable region do in Opsonins?
Variable region binds to the bacterial antigen. The 'bacterium' is held on the phagocytic cell so it can be engulfed
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how to reduce MRSA?
apply alcohol-based hand rub to their hands/wear disposable gloves/ wear plastic aprons to prevent exposure to body fluids, hospital clean thoroughly, patients with MRSA infections isolated.
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Cause of cancer
Failure of a cell to undergo apoptosis/Mutation of genes that control cell division/viruses
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what causes the cells failure to undergo apoptosis
e.g altered P53 from a mutated TP53 gene this leads the cell continuing to divide
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what can cause mutation of genes that control cell division(MUTAGENS-cause mutations. A carcinogen is a mutagen.
Ultra-violet/UV radiation/ionising radiation;X-rays/chemicals in tabbacco smoke-benzopyrene
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viruses that causes cacer
HPV-human pappilloma virus
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what are the biological problems with developing vacine against HIV
it has a high mutation rate, so that any T killer that could recognise the infected cells at the begining of the infection cannot now. There are so many strains of the HIV virus within the body.
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Ethical issues with the devlopment of the HPV vaccine
it need to be given to girls before they are sexually active, therefore at 12 you need to be vaccinated. Some people believe that this will increase underage sex. Not all cervical cancer attributes to HPV.
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How are your cells infected with HIV virus
this is a retrovirus therefore Genetic material is RNA. when the virus infects the host cells. Its enzyme, reverse transriptase makes a DNA copy of the the virus using RNA as a template and inserts it into the host DNA. It lead on to AIDS.
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who founded the first antibiotic?
Alexander Flemiming, in his lab in the 1920s
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what is a antibiotic?
a chemical that is produced by microorganisms, such as bacterium and fungus, that can inhibit the growth of other microorganisms, by interferrring with metabolism.
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Inhibition of cell wals synthesis, which antibiotics do this?
penicillin. Cephalosporins
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DNa synthesis, which antibiotics do this?
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RNA synthesis, what antibiotic does this?
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Protein synthesis, what antibiotic does this?
macrolides, Tetracycline
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Folic aci synthesis
Sulfomanides, Trimethoprim
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what is meant by a 'superbug'?
a strain of bacteria that has become resisitant to antibiotics
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why can't antibiotics be used to treat Viral infections?
as virus use host cells
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what is 'herd immunity'?
about 85%-90% of tyhe population need to be immune for this to happen. the idea is that if majority of the population is vacinnated then are person meeting a person who is succeptile tom pathogen is reduced.
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natural active
immunity after being injected with pathogen requiring immune response
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Aquired active
injected with a dead or weakened pathogen or antigen. this stimulates immune response.
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natural passive
no immune response needed, the antibodies for antigens are passed straigt on. e.g. breasfeeding
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Aquired passive
No immune response antibodies made in lab
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Blood groups
A-antigens a and antibodies in plasma-Anti B, B-antigens b and antibodies - Anti A, AB-A and B antigens adn No antibodies, O-niether a or b and antibodies in plasma-A+B
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Rhesus Factor
when people have Antigen D on tthe surfce of their Red Blood cells. if they have it rhesus positve. if you don't rhesus negative.
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why do they test for blood groups and rhesus factor in parents?
As if the mother is negative and child is positive at birth the mother and child's blood would be exposed to one another. the mother will then produce Anti-rhesus antibodies thay could travel across placenta and harm the rhesus posittive fetus.
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the effect of this on baby.
an enlarged liver or spleen/Jaundice/oedema/difficulty breathing
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why do the they test for rhesus factor in blood transfusions?
as the recipient blood must be compatible
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Biological factors that makes HIV spread.
Virus mutates and changes its antigens so there is no vaccine/it can be sexually tansmitted and it is difficult to change peoples behaviour/there are no obvious symptoms so it it unknown for a long time
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social and economic factor on reason why HIV spreads
most of the countries where HIV is high is LEDC and do not have enough money to prevent e.g.screenings/some government give out incorrect advice/people who badly educated do not know how to protect themselves/poverty forces women into sex industry
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ethical factor for large spread of HIV
in civil arrest **** adn deliberate infection used as an weapon/women in LEDC have low status and men are unwilling to wear condoms/people who may have HIV ares scared to be test due to the stigma against it
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biological factors for the sprad of TB
some strains of the bacterium haev become resisitant as the treatment ahs not been taken properly/ vaccines cannot work effectively in LEDCs where children are not nourished
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social and economical factors for the spread of TB
spread in droplets; therefore people living in sub-standard housing/over-crowded houses/poor diet/drink unpasteurised milk,get it quicker. not enough education or healthcare centres to help understand why it spreads
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ethical factors of why TB spreads
being homeless make you more likely to be infected. natons cannot afford to pay for good healthcare
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non infectious disease
disease that is not caused by pathogen ot transmitted
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Card 2


why are seed stored, instead of leaves and stems?


so that they can be regrown again and viable for many decades. Can't be used to produce next generation of individuals

Card 3


why are seed bank important?


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


Why is DNA Barcoding important?


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


What is DNA barcode based on?


Preview of the front of card 5
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