Unit 2 module 2 food and health

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  • Created by: Kadejha
  • Created on: 12-03-14 20:15
What is the function of carbohydrates?
to provide energy
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what is the function of lipids
act as an energy store, provide insulation, make up cell membranes, physically protect organs
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what is the function of proteins?
needed for growth, repair of tissues, make enzymes
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what is the function of vitamins?
different vitamins have different functions, e.g. vitamin D for calcium absorption, vitamin K for blood clotting
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what is the function of mineral salts?
different mineral salts have different functions, e.g. iron is needed to make haemoglobin, calcium is needed for bone formation
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what is the function of fibre?
aids movement of food through the gut
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what is the function of water?
used in chemical reactions, need a constant supply of water to replace water lost through urinating, breathing and sweating
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what is malnutrition?
having too little or too much of some nutrients in your diet
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what is obesity?
being 20% or more over the recommended weight
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what diseases can obesity lead to?
diabetes, arthritis, high blood pressure, coronary heat disease, some forms of cancer
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what causes coronary heart disease?
reduced blood flow to the heart caused by atherosclerosis
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what does the body use to regulate cholesterol levels?
LDLs and HDLs
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what are HDLs?
mainly protein. they transport cholesterol from body tissues to the liver where its recycled or excreted. their function is to reduce blood cholesterol when the level is too high.
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what are LDLs?
mainly lipid. they transport cholesterol from the liver to the blood, where it circulates until needed by cells. Their function is to increase blood cholesterol when the level is too low.
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what is the effect of a diet high in saturated fat?
raises LDL level, so more cholesterol ids transported to the blood increasing total blood cholesterol and increasing the risk of CHD
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what is the effect of a diet high in polyunsaturated fat?
raises HDL level, so more cholesterol is transported from the blood to the liver, decreasing total blood cholesterol and decreasing the risk of CHD
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what are fertilisers?
chemicals that increase crop yields by providing minerals (such as nitrate, phosphate and potassium) that plants need to grow
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what are pesticides?
chemicals that increase crop yields by killing pests that feed on the crops. this means fewer plants are damaged or destroyed
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give 3 examples of when micro-organisms have been used to make food
bread (yeast), wine (yeast), cheese (bacteria), yoghurt (bacteria)
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name 3 advantages of using micro-organisms to make food
micro-organisms can grow on a range of inexpensive materials, the environment can be artificially controlled, conditions for growth are easy to create
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name 2 disadvantages of using micro-organisms to make food
high risk of food contamination, small changes of temperature or pH can easily kill the micro-organisms
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how can food spoilage by micro-organisms be prevented?
salting or adding sugar-prevents micro-organisms taking in water, freezing-slows growth of micro-organisms, pickling in acidic vinegar-inhibits growth, heat treatments-kills micro-organisms, irradiation-kills micro-organisms
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what is health?
a state of physical, mental and social well-being, which includes the absence of disease and infirmity
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what is a disease?
a condition that impairs the normal functioning of an organism
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what is a pathogen?
an organism that can cause damage to the organism it infects (bacteria, fungi, viruses)
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what is a parasite?
an organism that lives on or in another organism and causes damage to that organism (tapeworms,roundworms, fleas)
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how is malaria caused?
mosquitoes (the vector) transfer the plasmodium parasite into an animal's blood when they feed on them
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what is HIV?
human immunodeficiency virus- infects white blood cells and reproduces inside those cells. after it has reproduced it kills the white blood cell as it leaves. HIV leads to AIDS
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what are the three main ways that HIV is transmitted?
unprotected sexual intercourse, infected bodily fluids e.g. sharing needles & blood transfusions, from mother to fetus through placenta, breast milk or during child birth
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what is the bacterium that causes tuberculosis?
mycobacterium tuberculosis
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tuberculosis is spread by droplet infection. what is droplet infection?
when an infected person coughs or sneezes, tiny droplets of saliva and mucus containing the bacteria are released from their mouth and nose. these droplets are then breathed in by other people
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Card 2

Front

act as an energy store, provide insulation, make up cell membranes, physically protect organs

Back

what is the function of lipids

Card 3

Front

needed for growth, repair of tissues, make enzymes

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

different vitamins have different functions, e.g. vitamin D for calcium absorption, vitamin K for blood clotting

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

different mineral salts have different functions, e.g. iron is needed to make haemoglobin, calcium is needed for bone formation

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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