Unit 2 Climate and Change

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What is meant by the term 'weather'?
Short term, day to day changes in the atmosphere
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What is meant by the term 'Climate'?
The average weather conditions over 30 years
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How do we know climate was different in the past?
Fossils of animals and plants that no longer live in the UK, Landforms left by glaciers, Ice core samples from ice sheets in Antarctica, Ice sheets are made up of layers of ice, layer for each year. Trapped in the ice sheets are air bubbles.
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What are climatologists?
They study the CO2 levels to reconstruct pats climates
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What does the term 'INTER GLACIAL' mean?
Warm periods
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What does the term 'GLACIAL' mean?
Cold periods, ice ages, ice sheets 400 - 3000m thick extended across the northern hemisphere
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How do we know climate has changed in the more recent past?
Old photos, paintings, Diaries, Newspapers, Recorded dates of blossom and migration of birds
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State what the Eruption theory says to explain why climate has changed in the past?
Very large, explosive volcanic eruptions change earths climate. Ash and sunlight regas spread around the stratosphere and stop aching the earths surface - cools the earth. Example is Mt Pinatubo 1991 Philippines, reduced global sunlight by 10%
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State what the Sunspot theory says to explain why climate has changed in the past?
Black areas in the suns surface. Some times there are more then they disappear. Spots mean greater activity and more solar energy being sent towards the earth - warmer
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State what the Orbital theory says to explain why climate has changed in the past?
Changes in the way the earth orbits the sun from circular to ellipse alters the amount of sunlight the earth receives
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Give a named example of an Inter glacial period?
The little ice age, Greeland vikings ran out of food and died s temperatures fell, In England there were 'frost fairs' on the river Thames when it froze, Crops failed, farmers died of hunger, Glaciers grew in alps, Crops changed from wheat to potatoe
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What does the term ecosystem mean?
Where plants and animals interact with each other and their environment in order to survive. Can be small e.g pond or large e.g Tropical Rain forest
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How were ecosystems affected by climate change in the past? (dinosaur extinction)
The dinosaur extinction: possibly massive asteroid hitting Mexico an volcano India combining - dust, ash, gas into stratosphere - blocks the sun - cooled climate - plants don't grow - dinosaurs have no food = knock on effect through the food chain
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How were ecosystems affected by climate change in the past? (Megafauna extinction)
Big animals like woolly mammoth. The climate was warming so they had to find new areas to live where the climate suited them. This disrupted food chains Humans also hunted them to extinction.
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How is our atmosphere being changed by human activity?
Greenhouses (CO2 from the burning of fossil fuels, deforestation, Methane from paddy feilds and cattle, Nitrous oxide from aircraft engines and fertilizers) trap heat from leaving the atmosphere and re - radiate that heat back down to earth.
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What are the advantages and disadvantages of greenhouse gas?
The greater the concentration of greenhouse gases, the more heat is trapped so the warmer earth becomes which can affect future generations, however we need the natural greenhouse effect. - Without it, earth will be too cold for humans to survive
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Who produces the most Greenhouse gases?
Developed countries
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What issues do we need to think about in terms of 'increasing emissions'?
How we can decrease emissions in the developed world, How we persuade developing countries e.g China, India to slow their CO2 emissions, How do we protect vulnerable people from the impacts of climate change
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What does the term 'global warming' mean?
A warming of the earths temperature s caused by the ENHANCED greenhouse effect (humans have polluted the atmosphere so it is working more strongly)
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What will happen if temperature increase?
Sea levels will rise due to THERMAL EXPANSION (water droplets expand as warm) and glaciers and ice sheets melt
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What evidence is there of Global Warming happening?
19 out of 20 warmest years on record since 1980 Sea ice in the Arctic shrank, 90% glaciers shrinking
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Give a named example of a country that will face the effects of global warming. Describe the costs/benefits (UK)
UK - Costs = Droughts, water shortages, More illnesses, Farmers change crops to those that need less water, extinction of some plants/animals Benefits = Tourism increases, fewer winter deaths (elderly), more lands = higher altitudes
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Give a named example of a developed country that will face the effects of global warming. Describe the costs/benefits (UK)
Sea levels will raise - low lying coasts could flood, Greater erosion e.g Holderness, more sea defenses needed, EXTREME WEATHER: Heatwaves, Floods, Storms
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Give a named example of a developing country that will face the effects of global warming. Describe the costs/benefits (Egypt)
Egypt is a developing country, low greenhouse gas emissions - 2.6 tonnes per person per year (world average = 6.8), Produce less then 1% all green house gases, 99% of Egypt people live in 5% land area as so much is desert,
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Give a named example of a developing country that will face the effects of global warming. Describe the costs/benefits (Egypt)
Average rainfall = less than 10mm/yr, The River Nile is an important water supply. GLOBAL WARMING = If sea levels rise 50cm, 1/3 of the city of Alexandria would be under water. 10% Nile Delta would flood -> there would be less food -> famine
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Give a named example of a developing country that will face the effects of global warming. Describe the costs/benefits (Egypt)
Less and more unreliable rainfall -> water shortages, Desertification, Heatwaves, -> Illness and death, Malaria increase WATER WARS = 86% of the Nile water starts its journey in Ethiopia. Uganda, Sudan and Ethiopia are all building huge dams for HEP
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Card 2

Front

What is meant by the term 'Climate'?

Back

The average weather conditions over 30 years

Card 3

Front

How do we know climate was different in the past?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What are climatologists?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What does the term 'INTER GLACIAL' mean?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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