Unit 2 - basic concepts and hydrocarbons

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Homologous series?
Is a series of organic compounds with the same functional group but with each successive member differing by CH2.
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Functional group?
Is the part of the organic molecule responsible for its chemical reactions.
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Hydrocarbon?
Are organic compounds that contain hydrogen and carbon only.
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A saturated hydrocarbon?
Is a hydrocarbon with single bonds only.
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An unsaturated hydrocarbon?
Is a hydrocarbon containing carbon-to-carbon multiple bonds.
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Are alkanes and cycloalkanes saturated or unsaturated?
Saturated.
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How many bonds can each carbon atoms make?
4
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What shape does this present the atom to form molecules in?
Tetrahedral
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State the names of the first 10 members of the alkane homologous series?
Methane, ethane, propane, butane, pentane, hexane, heptane, octane, nonane and decane.
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An alkyl group?
Is an alkane with a hydrogen atom removed, e.g. CH3, often shown as R.
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How do you name an alkyl group?
Use the stem for the number of carbons in the alkyl (meth, or pent), and then add 'yl' to the end.
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What is the functional group for an alkane?
C-C (-ane)
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What is the functional group for an alkene?
C=C (-ene)
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What is the functional group for a halogenoalkane?
-F, Cl, B or I (fluoro-, chloro-, bromo- or iodo)
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What is the functional group for an alcohol?
-OH (hydroxy- or -ol)
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What is the functional group for an aldehyde?
-CHO with C=O and C-H (-al)
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What is the functional group for a ketone?
C-CO-C with C-C-C and C=O (-one)
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What is the functional group for a carboxylic acid?
-COOH with C-OH and C=O (-oic acid)
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Empirical formula?
Is the simplest whole number ratio of atoms of each element present in a compound.
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Molecular formula?
Is the actual number of atoms of each element in a molecule.
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General formula?
Is the simplest algebraic formula of a member of a homologous series.
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Displayed formula?
Shows the relative positioning of all the atoms in a molecule and the bonds between them.
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Structural formula?
Shows the minimal detail for the arrangement of atoms in a molecule.
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Skeletal formula?
Is a simplified organic formula, with hydrogen atoms removed from alkyl chains, leaving just a carbon skeleton and associated functional groups.
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Structural isomers?
Are molecules with the same molecular formula but with different structural arrangements of atoms.
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Stereoisomers?
Are organic compounds with the same structural formula, but a different arrangement of the atoms in space.
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E isomer or trans isomers have groups on?
The opposite side.
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Z isomer or cis isomers have groups on?
The same side.
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The two factors which must be present for a E/Z isomer?
A carbon-Carbon double bond, each carbon in the double bond must be attached to tow different groups.
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E/Z isomerism?
Is a type of stereoisomerism in which different groups attached to each carbon of a C=C double bond may be arranged differently in space because of restricted rotation of the C=C bond.
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Cis-trans isomerism?
Is a special type of E/Z isomerism in which there is a non-hydrogen group on each C of a C=C double bond.
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Homolytic fission?
Is the breaking of a covalent bond, with one of the bonded electrons going to each atom, forming two radicals.
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Radical?
A species with an unpaired electron.
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Heterolytic fission?
Is the breaking of a covalent bond with both of the bonded electron going to one of the atoms, forming a cation (+) and an anion (-).
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A nucleophile?
Is an atom (or group of atoms) that is attracted to an electron deficient centre or atom, where it donates a pair of electrons form a new covalent bond.
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An electrophile?
Is an atom (or group of atoms) that is attracted to an electron rich centre or atom, where it accepts a pair of electrons to form a new covalent bond.
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An addition reaction?
Is a reaction in which a reactant is added to an unsaturated molecule to make it a saturated molecule.
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A substitution reaction?
Is a reaction in which an atom or group of atoms replaced with a different atom or group of atoms. 2 reactants give 2 products.
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An elimination reaction?
Refers to the removal of a molecule from a saturated molecule to make an unsaturated molecule. 1 reactant gives 2 products.
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How is crude oil made?
From naturally decaying plants and animals from millions of years ago.
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Why does crude oil need to be broken down?
Because it does not ignite easily in its native state.
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How is crude oil split into smaller alkanes?
Fractional distillation.
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Fractional distillation?
Is the separation of the components in a liquid mixture into fractions which differ in boiling point (and hence chemical composition) by means of distillation, typically by using a fractioning column.
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Uses of petroleum?
As bottled gas, for camp stoves etc.
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Uses of gasoline?
As a fuel in cars.
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Uses of kerosine?
Aircraft fuel.
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Uses for Diesel?
Fuel for vans, busses and lorries.
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Uses for fuel oil?
Fuel for ships and power stations.
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Uses for residue?
Bitumen for road surfacing, lubrication oil and paraffin wax.
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What two features in alkanes effect the boiling point?
The chain length and branching.
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Effect of chain length on boiling point of alkanes?
As chain length increases, so does boiling point. This is because intermolecular forces are stronger because there are more points of contact between molecule, leading to more van der Waals.
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Effect of branching on boiling point of alkanes?
As the number of branches increases, the boiling point deceases. This is because molecules cannot get as close to each other so there are less points of contact between molecules, leading to fewer van der Waals forces between molecules.
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Combustion of alkanes must have what present?
Oxygen.
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What are the products of combustion?
Carbon dioxide and water.
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If oxygen is not present what type of combustion occurs?
Incomplete combustion.
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What are the products of incomplete combustion?
Carbon monoxide and water.
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Cracking?
Refers to the breaking down of long-chained saturated hydrocarbons to form a mixture of shorter-chained alkanes and alkenes.
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What are the short chain alkanes used for?
Fuels.
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What are the short chain alkenes used for?
Polymer production.
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What can be used to increase the rate of cracking?
A catalyst.
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Which catalysts were originally used in cracking?
Aluminium oxide and silicon dioxide.
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Which catalyst is now used in cracking?
Zeolite.
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What temperature is cracking carried out at?
450 degrees.
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In which process can straight changed alkanes be converted to branched alkanes?
Isomerisation.
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In which process straight chain alkanes be converted into aromatic hydrocarbons?
Reforming.
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Why is burning hydrocarbons bad for the environment?
It produces an increase in atmospheric pollutants, like carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, nitrogen oxides and sulfur dioxide.
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What is a biofuel?
A fuel that is derived recently living material.
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Examples of biofuels?
Sugar cane, ****, ethanol, bioethanol and biodiesel.
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Conditions needed for alkanes to react with halogens?
300 degrees and presence of ultraviolet light.
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Alkanes reacting with halogens is called?
Radical substitution.
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What occurs in radical substitution?
Covalent bonds are broken by homolytic fission, forms two radicals, a hydrogen atom in the alkane is substituted by halogen atom
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Radical substitution occurs in 3 stages, initiation, propagation and termination. What happens in initiation?
The Cl-Cl bond is brokenly homiletic fission, forming two radicals. Ultraviolet light provides the energy.
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What happens in propagation?
1) methane reacts with a chlorine radical, forms a methyl radical and hydrogen chloride. 2) methyl radical reacts with a chlorine molecule and forms chloromethane and another chlorine radical.
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What happens in termination?
Two radicals combine to form a chlorine molecule. Removes radicals, therefore stopping reaction.
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A carbon=carbon double bond is made up of two parts, what are they?
A sigma bond and a Pi bond.
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Pi-bonds?
Are the reactive part of a double bond formed above and below the plane of the bonded atoms by sideways overlap of p-orbitals.
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How many electrons are used in each of the two types of bond?
1 in the pi bond and 3 in the sigma bond.
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Card 2

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Functional group?

Back

Is the part of the organic molecule responsible for its chemical reactions.

Card 3

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Hydrocarbon?

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Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

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A saturated hydrocarbon?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

An unsaturated hydrocarbon?

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Preview of the front of card 5
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