UNIT 1 MODULE 1

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magnification
is the degree to which the size of an image is larger than the object itself
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Resolution
is the degree to which it is possible to distinguish between two objects that are very close together
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micrometre
is equal to one millionth of a metre
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nanometre
is one thousandth of a micrometre
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staining
in microscopy refers to any process that helps to reveal or distinguish different features. In light microscopy, stains may be colours or fluroscent dyes. In electron microscopy, they are metal particles or metal salts.
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the cytoskeleton
refers to the network of protein fibres found within a cell that gives structure and shape to the cell, and also moves organelles around inside the cell
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the term organelle
refers to a particular structure of a cell that has a specialised function. Some organelles are membrane-bound, others are not. All perform a particular role in the life processes of the cell.
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the phospholipid bilayer
is the basic structural component of plasma membranes (cell surface membranes). It consists of two layers of phospholipid molecules. Proteins are embedded in this layer.
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Fluid mosaic
refers to the model of cell membranes structure. The lipid molecules give fluidity and proteins in the membrane give it a mosaic (patchwork) appearance. The molecules can move about.
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Cell signalling
cells communicate with one another by signals. Many molecules act as signals - some signal during processes taking place inside cells; other signals from one cell the others. Cytokines are an example of cell signals
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diffusion
is the movement of molecules from a region of high concentration of that molecule to a region of lower concentration of that molecule down a concentration gradient.
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active transport
refers to the movement of molecules or ions across membranes, which use ATP to drive protein 'pumps' within the membrane
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solute
a solid that dissolves in a liquid
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solvent
a liquid that dissolves solids
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solution
a liquid containing dissolved solids
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the cell cycle
describes the events that take place as one parent cell divides to produce two new daughter cells which then each grow to full size
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mitosis
refers to the process of nuclear division where two genetically identical nuclei are formed from one parent cell nucleus
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clones
genetically identical cells or organisms derived from on parent
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differentiation
refers to the changes occurring in cells of a multicellular organism so that each different type of cell becomes specialised to perform a specific function
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tissue
a collection of similar cells that carry out a specific function
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organ
a collection of tissues that work together to carry out a specific function
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Card 2

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is the degree to which it is possible to distinguish between two objects that are very close together

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Resolution

Card 3

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is equal to one millionth of a metre

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Card 4

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is one thousandth of a micrometre

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Card 5

Front

in microscopy refers to any process that helps to reveal or distinguish different features. In light microscopy, stains may be colours or fluroscent dyes. In electron microscopy, they are metal particles or metal salts.

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