Unit 1 KEY WORDS

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Activation Energy
The minimum amount of energy required to break pre-existing bonds, before new ones can be made in a chemical reaction.
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Active Site
The part of the enzyme molecule, in to which the substrate molecule fits during a chemical reaction. The active site is a specific shape for a specific substrate molecule.
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Active Transport
The movement of substances from a low concentration to a high concentration, against the concentration gradient. Involves specific carrier proteins in the cell membrane. Requires energy in the form of ATP.
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Adenine
One of the nucleotide bases found in nucleic acids. Adenine always pairs with Thymine. 2 Hydrogen Bonds form between A & T. (Adenine is also a component of ATP and ADP).
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Aerobic
Requiring the presence of oxygen. E.g. Aerobic Respiration can only occur when sufficient oxygen is present.
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Albinism
A genetic condition that is causes by a recessive allele. Allele results in the non-production of pigment.
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Allele
One of the different forms of a particular gene.
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Alveolus, Alveoli
Tiny air sacs in the lungs where gas exchange takes place. They are lined by a layer of cells known as squamous epithelium. 1) Thin cells - ensure efficient diffusion of gases. 2) Large total SA - also helps ensure efficient diffusion.
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Amino Acid
Basic unit/ monomer that forms proteins when linked by condensation reactions. 20 different AAs.
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Amniocentesis
Obtain cells from a developing foetus from the amniotic fluid surrounding it - the cells can be examined so that chromosomes/DNA can be observed.
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Amniotic Fluid
Fluid between the foetus and the amnion membrane which cushions/supports the developing foetus.
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Amylase
An enzyme that digests starch in to soluble sugars, through the addition of water a.k.a. HYDROLYSIS. Amylose > Maltose
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Amylopectin
Polysaccharide - branched chains of glucose molecules, component of starch.
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Amylose
Polysaccharide - long straight chain glucose molecules > spiral shape, component of starch.
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Anaemia
Condition - reduced amount of haemoglobin. > Tire easily, lose breath quickly. > Cause (1) - Shortage of Ion in diet.
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Aneurysm
A weakening of artery wall, results in swelling. Serious but artery can be repaired surgically.
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Angina
Chest pain, occurs when blood to heart muscle is lacking oxygen. Anaerobic respiration occurs which causes a build up of lactic acid resulting in the pain.
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Anticodon
A sequence of 3 nucleotide bases on a tRNA molecule, complementary to mRNA codon.
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Antihypertensives
Drugs that reduce HBP.
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Antioxidant
Substance that protects against Heart Disease, by protecting damage against radicals.
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Aorta
Main Artery. Takes blood from the LV of the heart. Other arteries branch off of the Aorta.
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Arrhythmia
Condition - irregular heart beat - can result in Heart Disease, sometimes have no obvious cause.
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Arteriole(s)
Blood vessel which takes blood from the smaller arteries to the capillaries. Walls contain muscle fibres which contract so that blood supply to capillary networks is regulated.
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Artery, Arteries
Blood vessel which takes blood from the heart to the arterioles, which leads to the capillaries. Arteries contain oxygen rich blood, except the Pulmonary Artery which takes de-ox blood to the lungs.
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Atheroma, Artherosclerosis
Disease of the arteries. 1) Walls of artery damaged by HBP or cigarette smoke. 2) Cholesterol, Calcium Salts and Fibrous Tissues build up in the wall > Atheroma. 3) Blocks artery, HBP build up, could lead to heart attack/ myocardial infarction.
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ATP
Molecule involved in the transfer of energy, produced from ADP and phosphate using energy from respiration. ATP breaks down - energy made available, energy can be used for active transport and other processes.
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Atrioventricular Valve
Valves between atria and ventricles in the heart. The valves have a large role in the cardiac cycle. They help prevent back flow.
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Atrium, Atria
Chamber of the heart that receives blood from the body. In mammals, there are 2 atria.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

The part of the enzyme molecule, in to which the substrate molecule fits during a chemical reaction. The active site is a specific shape for a specific substrate molecule.

Back

Active Site

Card 3

Front

The movement of substances from a low concentration to a high concentration, against the concentration gradient. Involves specific carrier proteins in the cell membrane. Requires energy in the form of ATP.

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

One of the nucleotide bases found in nucleic acids. Adenine always pairs with Thymine. 2 Hydrogen Bonds form between A & T. (Adenine is also a component of ATP and ADP).

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

Requiring the presence of oxygen. E.g. Aerobic Respiration can only occur when sufficient oxygen is present.

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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