Unit 1 Key Terms

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An attempt to persuade the reader to accept something. An argument must have a conclusion and at least one reason.
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The conclusion or an argument is a statement that the writer wants the reader to accept based on the reasons given.
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A statement that aims to persuade the reader to accept a conclusion
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A statement or judgement that can be challenged
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Argument indicator
A word or short phrase that helps the reader identify the elements of an argument
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Counter Arguement
An additional argument that is against, or counter to what the conclusion seeks to establish. The writer usually presents the counter argument in order to dismiss it.
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Counter Assertion
If the writer presents a reason that would support an opponents argument, rather than a counter argument then it is a counter claim
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Hypothetical claim
A claim in the form if this.... then that. Hypothetical claim indicator words and phrases include: 'if,provided that,on the condition that,given that.....then'
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Hypothetical reasoning
This looks at the consequences that might occur if something was the case
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This is a missing reason within an argument. The writer accepts the assumption but has not stated it. However the assumption is essential for the conclusion to be drawn
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Reverse Test
A strategy for checking wether an assumption is needed by an argument by asking the question would the argument work with the assumption reversed
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Information that can be verified and is held to be true
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Factual claim
A statement or judgement based on information that can be verified and is held to be true
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Something that is used to develop or support a reason. Often in the form of numerical data, an estimate or a factual claim.
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Something which is used as evidence because it is characteristic of the same kind of things or because it can serve to illustrate a principle
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Whether someones claims can be believed
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Whether or not a claim or piece of evidence is reasonable
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A person who saw (or heard) an event
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A person, organisation or document providing information or evidence
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Witness statement
A report by someone who has actually seen or heard an event
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Criteria (RAVEN)
Benchmarks against which something can be measured (Reputation,Ability to see/ Know,Vested Interest,expertise,neutrality/bias
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Ability to know/to see
A sources ability to use any of the 5 senses to assess an event or situation
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Eye- witness
Someone who provides evidence on a first hand experience
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Evidence based on secondhand information from another source who may have interpreted it
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Confirmation of,or support for evidence given by one source, by another source
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When evidence or an argument contains two claims which cannot both be correct at the same time
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Tendency to be prejudiced against, or in favour of certain beliefs or people who engage in particular activities - this gives a motive or subconscious reason to lie,misinterpret or distort information be being selective
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Being impractical; having no reason to favour each side in a dispute or difference of opinion
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Vested interest
Personal interest usually financial in a state of affairs or in an organisation leading to the expectation or personal gain from a favourable outcome
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Factor that may cause a person to act in a particular way
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Skills,experience and training that give some specialist knowledge and a judgement
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What is generally said or believed about the character of a person or an organisation
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Card 2




The conclusion or an argument is a statement that the writer wants the reader to accept based on the reasons given.

Card 3




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Card 4




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Card 5


Argument indicator


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