Unit 1 ICT

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  • Created by: Rebecca
  • Created on: 25-05-13 10:17
What are the main health problems
Stress, RSI, Eye Strain, General aches and pains, Radiation hazards
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Back Pain
Cause: Slouching on a computer chair constantly. Prevention: Use ergonomic chairs- adjust to your needs
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RSI
Cause: continuosly using the standard keyboard. Prevention: Ergonomic keyboards
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Radiation
Cause: being s short distance away from a computer. Prevention: Limit use of the computer
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Eye Strain
Cause: looking at computer screen for long periods of time without any breaks. Prevention: Having regular breaks.
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Stress
Cause:Having too much work to do. Prevention: Relax and have regular breaks
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Headaches
Cause:From looking at the computer for long periods of time/ radiation from computer. Prevention:regular breaks
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Health and Safety at work act
Made in 1974, set to protect workers, employers have a duty of care to their employees, employees need to assess the risk- risk assessment to reduce the risk
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Risk assessment form
Identify hazards, identify the risk those hazards can produce, put safety precautions in place to reduce the risk, train workers to deal with any risks that remain, check regularly, encourage staff to report any health and safety problems
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Health and Safety (display screen equipment) regulation
Made in 1992- related to the law on the use of ICT equipment at work, designed to safe gaurd those who use the computer for long periods of time, the regulations only apply to workers who use computers for a significant amount of their day
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Work station
As far as possible the work stations should be adjustable to suit the needs of individual workers.
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Work station design
Chairs should be adjustable, monitors should tilt and swivel, keyboards should be adjustable (height), enough work space provided, document holders, foot rests and wrist rests
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Software design
Muted colour schemes, sensible font sizes, clear screen layouts, keyboard short cuts, help option should be provided
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Who is the client
The person who has invited you to solve the particular problem
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Who is the user
The person who actually enters data into the system and uses it to process and get a output where necessary
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Who is the audience
The person who views the content of a solution and does not enter data
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What is verificiation check
reduces data entry but cannot remove it completely
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What is validation check
a method of checking data to try to reduce the number of errors in data being entered
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Presence check
checks the data being entered into a field and that it has not been left
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Type check
Checks that an entered value is of a particular type, e.g a product is in currency
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Length check
Checks that an entered value is a certain length e.g mobile phone number is 11 digits
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Range check
Checks that an entered values falls within a particular range
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Format check
Checks than an entered value has a particular format e.g date of birthday dd/mm/yy
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Drop down lists
Makes sure that the input can only be one of those picked from the list
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Limit check
Used where there is only one boundary required for a particular field
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Factors affecting choice of input device
Type of data, volume of data, user preferences, cost considerations, where the device is to be used.
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Keyboard
Most common type of input- standard QWERTY keyboard. Ergonomic keyboards have be designed to reduce RSI
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Mouse
Common pointing device, 2 main types: mechanical (roller) and optical (uses light sensor)
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Touch Screens
Sense when an area of the screen has been touched. Often used in public areas because they are easy to use, combine input and output and don't need any extra devices.
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Voice/ Speech Recognition
Used to input sound into a computer system and are often used for voice recognition systems which convert sounds made by a user into commands that the computer can carry out. It is 99% accurate.
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Advantages/disadvantages of Voice/ Speech Recognition
ADS: quicker method, ideal for disabled users, prevents RSI, hands are free. DIS: software needs to be trained to recognise an individuals voice, can be problems with voice changes, user has to learn a range of commands, background noise = errors
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Scanners
Can be used to input pictures/ text into a computer. Several types of scanners, flatbed, hand held, integrated, bar code
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Graphics Tablet
Use mainly for drawing. Interactive whiteboards are touch-sensitive computer displays.
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Advantages/disadvantages of a graphics tablet
ADS: more natural to draw diagrams with a stylus rather than a mouse, great level of accuracy can be achieved. DIS: not ideal for general selection work such a pointing, much more expensive than a mouse
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Barcode recognition
a code number for a product and is a set of vertical lines that represents a number
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Advantages/disadvantages of barcode readers
ADS:automatic input and quicker to enter, prices can easily be changed. DIS: problems if the system fails, new products have to be entered into database to keep the system up to date.
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OMR
detects marks made in certain places on specially printed forms
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Advantages/disadvantages of OMR
ADS: very fast input method, used when large amounts of data needs to be inputted, process can run in batches. DIS: mark may not be read correctly, not suitable for text input, answers need to be on specially prepared paper.
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Magnetic *****
Thin band of magnetic tape that is found on the back of cards. It can hold personal details about the card number such as account number, name etc.
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Advantages/disadvantages of Magnetic *****
ADS: simple to use and cheap to produce, data can be altered easily, security has been improved. DIS: very limited storage space, can be easily destroyed, not always secure
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Optical Character Recognition (OCR)
is where an ordinary scanner with special software converts text from a scanned image into a format that can be edited by word processing software.
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Advantages/disadvantages of OCR
ADS: much cheaper, much faster. DIS : NOT 100% ACCURATE, all documents need to be checked over carefully, not worth doing for small amounts of text
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Magnetic Ink Character Recognition (MICR)
input characters that have been printed in special magnetic ink.
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Advantages/disadvantages of Magnetic Ink Character Recognition
ADS: saves time, very secure. DIS: very expensive, will only recognise numbers in a standard font using the magnetic ink
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Sensors
Used to detect physical quantities outside a computer such a temperature, pressure and light
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8 bits =
1 byte
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1024 bytes =
1 kilobyte
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1024 kilobytes =
1 megabytes
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1024 megabytes =
1 gigabytes
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1024 gigabytes =
1 terabytes
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What is RAM
Random Access Memory is the computers working memory that is made of series of chips as shown in the illustration.Content is lost when the computer is switched off
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Ram
Is used for temporarily storing programs that are being used at any given time. Ram is also needed so that it is possible to multi-task by switching between multiple windows that are open.
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What is ROM
Read Only Memory, used to store the instructions for the programe that runs when the computer is initially switched on
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ROM
Is non-volatile and is not editable, so can't be changed or lost when the computer is switched off
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Internal/external hard drive
Have a very high data transfer rate and high storage capacity. The internal hard disk will be connected to the power supply inside the computer and will be supplied with 250 gigabytes- 5 terabytes. An external hard disk is plugged into the computer
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Magnetic tape
Use a serial access to find a data file to search for a specific piece of data. The system is mainly used to store back up data files
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Advantages/disadvantages of magnetic tape
ADS: relatively cheap, store huge amounts of data DIS: serial access can be quite slow to search for and access data, needs a special piece of equipment to record and read the data
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Flash Memory Stick (USB) (ads/dis)
ADS:far more compact, hold far more data, can be password protected. DSI: more expensive than floppy disks, easily be lost.
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Advantages/disadvantages of CD's
ADS: small and portable, reasonable storage capacity. DIS: care needs to be taken when handling, less storage capacity than had disks.
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Advantages/disadvantages of DVD's
DIS:small and portable, reasonable storage capacity. DIS: easy to scratch (care needs to be taken),
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advantages/disadvantages of Inkjet printers
ADS: cheaper tahn laser, smaller and lighter, cartridges are cheaper, produce good photograph quality. DIS: noiser than laser, colour printing can be slow, cartridges have a small capacity so need to be replaced often
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advantages/disadvantages of laser printers
ADS: high quality dry printout, faster and quicker than ink jets. DIS: more expensive to buy than ink jets,technology is complex and expensive to repair.
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advantages/disadvantages of Plotters
ADS: drawings are of better quality, larger sizes of paper can be used than normal printers can handle. DIS: far more expensive and can be slower as each line is drawn separately.
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Flat screen monitor
takes up less space than a CRT, but makes working at a computer much easier
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CRT monitor
Big and bulky and produce quite a lot of heat.
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Factors to consider when choosing a storage method
Volume of data being stored, reason the data is being stored, whether data will need to be rewritten, speed of recovery and physical size of the device.
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OS
Manages the computers memory when it is multi-tasking, allocates processing time between the various proesses being carried out, controls where data is stored on the disk, communicates with input and output devices, handles errors, system security
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Spreadsheet software
Normally performs calculations, can be used as a flat file database.Main features: graphs,charts, formatting cells (colour), formatting of text
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CAD/CAM
Computer aided design: mainly used commercially, took place of drawing using a pencil, can produce 3-D models. Computer aided manufacturing: helps to make factories highly automated
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Database Software
A tool or collecting and organising information, it can also store information. Main features: add new data, edit existing data, delete information, organise and view data, share data.
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Desk top publishing software
produces documents such as newsletters, brochures, leaflets and magazines. Has the main features of a word processing software.
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Graphic Design Software
aim is to arrange images so they are appropriate for publication. Many adjustments can be made: cropping parts of the image, resizing the image, adjusting brightness/colour balance, adding special effects
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Music/Video editting
Application includes: editing sound, normalizing levels of audio files, editting and organising mp3 files, voice editing for multimedia productions.
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Presentation software
Used to create a series of slides to be played on a computer as part of a demonstration. Main features: templates, text, images, colour schemes.
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Web design software
Used to design and develop web pages.
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Selecting and choosing software
functionality, performance, compatibility, user support, portability, financial issues and transferability of data.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Back Pain

Back

Cause: Slouching on a computer chair constantly. Prevention: Use ergonomic chairs- adjust to your needs

Card 3

Front

RSI

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Radiation

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Eye Strain

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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