Unit 1 chem

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What is the relative mass/charge ofa proton?
1 and +1
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What is the relative mass/charge ofa neutron
1 and 0
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What is the relative mass/charge ofa electron
1/1837 and -1
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What is the atomic mass nummber?
number of protons and neutrons in an atom
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what is the atomic number?
number of protons in the nucleus of an atom and identifies the element.
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What is an isotope ?
an element with the same amount of protons but different amount of neutrons
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What did early models of atomic structure predict?
atoms and ions with noble gas arrangment should be stable
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What is relative atomic mass?
Average mass of an atom where an atom of carbon is 12
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What is the first stage of mass spectromoty
vaporisation, the sample is turned into a gas using an electric heater
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what is the second stage?
ionisation. The sample is bombarded with high energy electrons, ionising it leaving positive ions so we can control the kinetic energy
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What is the third stage?
Accelaration, The sample is accelarated using an electric feild, created using two negitivly charged plates. the posisive ions are attracted too.
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What is the forth stage?
Deflection, for a given mass to charge ratio the positive ions path is altered by a magnetic feild lighter ions have less momentum so are deflected more, so ions with a certain mass/charge ratio make it to the detector
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what is the fifth stage?
detection. the magnetic feild strength is slowely increased so ions with a higher mass/charge ratio can make it to the detector as they hit it causes a current to flow, the bigger the current the more isotopes present in that sample.
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Ionic bonding can be between?
Metals and non metals
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covalent bonds form between?
non metals
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properties of ionic compounds ?
conduct electrisity when molten or dissolved. carry a charge in a liquid and the ions in a liquid are free to move. soluable
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properties of a covalent compound?
dont conduct electrisity, low melting points, some soluable
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What is the structure of graphite?
Carbon atoms in sheets of flat hexagons, covalently bonded to three other bonds, forth is a delocalised electron. weak van der waals forces
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properties of graphite ?
weak bonds, layers can slide over each other. Delocalised electrons freeley move along the sheets, current can flow. layers quite far apart so low density. insoluable covalent bonds in layers to difficult to break
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What is the structure of diamond?
tetrahedral shape of carbon atoms bonded to four other carbon atoms
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Properties of diamond?
high melting point, 3800 k plus. extremely hard. good thermal conductor as vibrations travel easily through the stiff lattice. localised bonds, no current can flow. insoluable.
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What is a normal sinmple covalent bond?
They share a pair of electrons with an electron coming from each atom.
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What is a dative covalent bond?
one atom provides both pair of shared electorns, to find out which one shairs, find which has the lone pair of electrons
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What is the relative mass/charge ofa neutron

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1 and 0

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What is the relative mass/charge ofa electron

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Card 4

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What is the atomic mass nummber?

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what is the atomic number?

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