Unit 1 biology the immune reponce

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How are invading pathgen cells identified?
Foreign cells not recognised by the body #, means antigens on the surface of their cells are activated
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What are the Four stages of the immune responce?
Phagocyte recognises the antigens and moves it's cytoplasm round the pathoge, engulfing it. Lysosomes fuse with the phagocyte, which contains digests the pathogen. The Phagocyte sticks the foreign antigens to it, presenting it.
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What happens with T cell activation?
The T cells recognise the phagocyte presenting antigens, and it releases a substance to activate B cells, it also makes the correct T cells for the antigen to break them down by attatching antigens to them.
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What happens with B cell activation?
These are covered with antibodies, which bind with the antigens to form antigen-antibody complex. Each B cell has a specific antibody that can bind to a specific antigen. When an antigen-antibody complex is formed, B cell splits, forming plasma cells
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What are plasma cells?
identical B cell copies.
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What are the functions of an Antibody?
Coating a pathogen to make it easier for the phagocyte to engulf, and harder for the pathogen to invade friendly cells. binding and neutrilizing toxins produced by pathogens.
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What is the structure of an antibody like?
It is made up of chains of amino acids, that are linked by peptide bonds, it has a speific variable region for specific antigens, but the same constant region.
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What Forms a celluar responce?
The T cells
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What forms the humoral responce?
The B cells
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What is the Primary immune responce?
When a new pathogen invades your body, your immune system is slow as it does not have many B cells that can produce the antibody needed to bind to the antigen. So people start to show symptoms before their immune system has enough antibodys.
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What is the secondary responce?
The person is now immune, due to B cells and T cells producing memory cells, so if you are infected again, they will be able to produce the specific antibodys needed faster, and you will overcome the infetion likely before showing symptoms
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What Is the overall function of T cells?
T cells activate B cells. T cells break down, destroying the pathogen, and it's memory cells are in charge of producing the correct T cells to break down the spesific pathogen.
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what is the overall function of B cells?
It binds specific antigens to it's antibodys, creating antigen-antibody complexes. It's memory cells make sure it divides to create the correct time of B cell with the specific complimentary antibody, for the pathogens antgen.
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How do vaccines work?
pathogen antigens are injected into your immune system, so the T and B cells divide and produce memory cells, so if you are ever infected, you will have a seconary immune responce.
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what is heard immunity?
where most are vaccinated, meaning less peole are likely to spread the disease round, so you are still safe even if not vaccinated.
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what are the ethical issues around vaccinations?
Tested on animals, and testing on humans risky, as they might put themselves at risk of catching the disease because they believe they are immune.
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What is antigenic variation ?
where some pathogens change their surface antigens, so your immune systems memory cells do not recognise them, and you have to go through primary immunity responce again.
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What is an example of Antigenic variation, explain it?
With the influenza virus (flue) they have protiens as their antigen, but these change regulary, forming new strains, which your memory cells do not recognise.
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what are moloconal antibodys?
these are just the identicled sturctured antibodys, produced from a single group of genetically identicle B cells, they can also be made to bind to anything
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How do monoclonal antibodys work in pregnancy tests?
pregnancy tests detect human chlorionic gondotropin, (HCG) The antibodys are on the detecting suface ofthe pregnancy test, if HCG is present, it will bind to the antibodys, creating a high concentration on the surface turning it blue.
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How do monoclonal antibodys work with anti cancer drugs?
Cancer cells have antigens called tumour markers. You can make monoclonal antibodys that bind with these, with anti cancer drugs attatched. The drug will only accumilate where cancer cells are present, so less side effects.
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Card 2

Front

What are the Four stages of the immune responce?

Back

Phagocyte recognises the antigens and moves it's cytoplasm round the pathoge, engulfing it. Lysosomes fuse with the phagocyte, which contains digests the pathogen. The Phagocyte sticks the foreign antigens to it, presenting it.

Card 3

Front

What happens with T cell activation?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What happens with B cell activation?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What are plasma cells?

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