Unit 1 (biology)

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What is a pathogen?
A organism which causes disease
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give 3 ways a pathogen can enter our body
Gas exchange system, digestive system or through skin
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how do bacteria cause disease?
releasing toxins
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how do viruses cause disease
they damage cells by reputering them when they reproduce inside
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what is an antigen?
proteins or polysaccharides on the surface of cells
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What is a phagocyte?
a white blood cell which engulfs pathogens (a process called phagocytosis)
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Where are phagocytes found?
in blood and tissue
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How does a phagocyte work?
recognises antigens, cytoplasm of phagocyte moves round the pathogen, lysosomal enzyme breaks it down
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What is a T-cell?
another type of white blood cell which has proteins on its surface that bind to antigens
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What is a B-cell?
white blood cells covered in antibodies which bind with antigens with a specific shape like enzymes
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What is a plasma cell?
clones of B-cells, they secrete antibodies specific to the antigen
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What are the two types of immune responses?
Cellular and humoral
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What is the secondary response faster than the primary response?
Memory cells will know which antibody to secrete for the right antigen after the primary
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What is a vaccination?
A dead or inactive or weakened strand of the virus is injected, the antigens are read and antibodies produced and then the antibody is remembered
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what is digestion?
Breaking down large molecules into smaller ones
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Give two examples of polymers in our food
Carbohydrates and proteins
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What are the 5 main parts of the digestive system?
Oesophagus, the stomach, the small intestine, large intestine then rectum
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What does the small intestine do in digestion?
Chyme moves along the small intestine by peristalsis(waves of muscle contractions), bile and pancreatic juices neutralise the chyme, villi increase surface area to absorb small molecules
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what enzymes are found in the small intestine?
Maltase, sucrase, lactase and peptidase
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What is a dipeptide?
Two amino acids joined together
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what is a polypeptide?
More than two amino acids joined together
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What are the main groups on an amino acid?
amine group, carboxyl group, variable group and hydrogen
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Which two groups join together when a dipeptide is made
carboxyl group and amine group
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Describe the primary structure of a protein
Sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide chain
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describe the secondary structure of a protein
Polypeptide chain gets hydrogen bonds between amino acids, causing it to coil into an alpha helix or beta pleated sheet
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Describe the tertiary structure of a protein
More hydrogen bonds form between different parts of the chain, this is the final form for proteins made of a single polypeptide chain
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Describe the quaternary structure of a protein
several different polypeptide chains held together
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Give 4 functions of a proteins
make enzymes, antibodies, transport proteins and structural proteins
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What is the test for proteins?
Add a few drops of sodium hydroxide solution, then add copper sulfate solution, purple layer forms if there is proteins present,
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what monomers make up carbohydrates?
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Give 3 examples of monosaccharies
Glucose, fructose and galactose
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Describe a glucose molecule
hexose sugar, 6 carbon atoms, 12 hydrogen and 6 oxygen
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whats the difference between an alpha and beta glucose?
The Hydrogen is on top of the OH in alpha glucose
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what is the bond between two monosaccharies called?
glycocidic bond
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which monosaccharies make up maltose?
Glucose + Glucose
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Which monosaccharies make up sucrose?
Glucose + fructose
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which monosaccharides make up lactose?
glucose and galactose
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What is the test for reducing sugars?
Add Benedict solution and heat it up, it will turn blue to brick red if a reducing sigar is present
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what is the test for non reducing sugars?
Boil test solution in HCL, then neutralise with sodium hydrogencarbonate, then carry out benedict test
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What is starch?
mixture of two polysaccharides called amylose and amylopectin
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How is starch broken down?
broken down itno maltose by amylase, then into glucose by maltase
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what is the test for starch?
Iodine dissolved in potassium iodide is added to the test sample, changes from orange brown to blue black
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Other cards in this set

Card 2


give 3 ways a pathogen can enter our body


Gas exchange system, digestive system or through skin

Card 3


how do bacteria cause disease?


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


how do viruses cause disease


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


what is an antigen?


Preview of the front of card 5
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