UNIT 1 BIOL flash cards

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  • Created by: Rachel
  • Created on: 23-04-13 21:55
What is a molecule of maltose derived from?
Two a-glucose molecules
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What is a molecule of lactose (milk sugar) derived from?
An B-glucose and a galactose molecule
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What is the name of the process where two monosaccharides react to form a disaccharide molecule?
Condensation reaction
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What is the name of the bond formed in a condensation reaction?
A glycosidic bond.
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What is name of the process when a disaccharide molecule breaks to form a monosaccharide?
Hydrolysis.
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What is lactose intolerance?
It is a condition that arises because a person cannot digest lactose (found in milk and dairy products) into its constituent monosaccharides- glucose and galactose.
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Digestion of lactose is carried out by which enzyme? At what age do people lose the ability to make this enzyme?
Lactase. Present in all young humans until the age of 4.
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Give 4 symptoms of lactose intolerance.
Bloating, cramps, flatulence and diarrhoea.
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What two compounds make up starch?
Amylose and amylopectin.
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Describe amylose and amylopectin...
Amylose is a linear molecule containing many a-glucose molecules attatched by an a-1,4-glycosidic bond. Amylopectin has a linear backbone of a-glucose molecules also joined by a-1,4-glycosidic bond, but has side branches.
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Why is starch a good storage carbohydrate in plants?
It has a helix structure making it compact.
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Why is glucose not stored in a plant?
Because if it was not converted to starch it would create a negative water potential in the cytoplasm and draw warer by osmosis from neighbouring cells.
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Why does starch not affect the water potential in a plant?
It is insoluble.
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Why is starch good at releasing glucose?
Because the amylopectin has many 'ends' therefore starch can be quickly hydrolysed (by enzymes at ends of the chains) to release glucose for respiration.
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What are protein molecules?
They are polymers of amino acids.
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State some functions of a protein.
They are important in the structure of plasma membranes, the immune system, enzymic control of metabolism and the structure of chromosomes.
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State the features of an amino acid molecule...
One hydrogen atom, an amino group (NH2) a carboxyl group (COOH) and an R group.
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What is the name of many amino acids joined together?
Polypeptide.
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What is the primary structure of a protein?
Many amino acids joined by peptide bonds to form a polypeptide chain.
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What is the secondary structure of a protein?
This is when the polypeptide chain folds itself into either a B-pleated sheet or a-helix. The structures are held in place by H bonds.
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What is the tertiary structure of a protein?
This involved further folding of the secondary structure and the formation of new bonds including H bonds, disulphate bridges and ionic bonds.
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What is a fibrous protein?
It is a protein with a tertiary structure that resembles a long string. They are structural. An example is collaen.
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What is globular protein?
It is a protein with a tertiary structure that resembles a ball shape. These proteins are involved in controlling cellular metabolism.
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State 4 functions of triglycerides
respiratory substrate, thermal insulation, buoyancy, waterproofing
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What is a triglyceride?
It is an ester consisting of one molecule of glycerol and three fatty acids.
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What is a phospholipid?
It is a compound consisting of one molecule of glycerol and two fatty acids, the thrid being replaced by a phosphate group
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Is the phosphate head hydrophillic or hydrophobic?
Hydrophillic. The head is water-loving.
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The is hydrocarbon tail hydrophillic or hydophobic?
Hydrophobic. The tail is water-hating.
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What test is used to test for starch?
Iodine solution. Added to solution. If it turns blue/black colour starch is present.
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What test is used to test for reducing sugars?
Bendicts. Add benedicts. Heat. If a brick red colour is shown then a reducing sugar is present.
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What test is used to test for non-reducing sugars?
Do bendicts. As it remains blue boil it with hydrochloric acid to hydrolyse any molecules. Add sodium carbonate. Re-do bendicts. If brick red then reducing sugars are present, meaning they were non reducing sugars origionally.
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What test is used to test for lipids?
Emulsion test. Shake sample with ethanol. Filter if necessary. Pour into water. If milky white lipid is present.
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What test is used to test for proteins?
Biuret test.
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How do you convert mm to micrometres?
Divide by 1000.
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What is magnification?
This is a process than makes an objecy appear larger than it is.
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What is resolution?
This is the ability of an instrument to distinguish between two points that are close together.
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Describe an optical microscope.
Pass rays of light through specimen. As it does, different parts of the specimen absorbs different aounts and wavelengths of light creating different shades and intensities.
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What are the two types of electron microscope?
Transmission electron microscope and scanning electron microscope.
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How does a TEM work?
Passes beam of electrons through the specimen. Powerful. Must be thin specimen. Specimen must be in vacuum.
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How does a SEM work?
Directs a beam of electrons ar a specimen and creates an image from the electrons that are reflected from the surface. Produces 3D image.
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Features of a prokaryotic cell
No membrane bound organelles. Often in a slippery layer called a capsule. Smaller ribosomes. Circular ring of DNA. Flagella. Pili.
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What is mitochondria?
An organelle that is the site of most aerobic respiration reactions. Surrounded by two membrane. Inner membrane folded to cristae. Produces ATP.
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What are ribosomes?
These are the site of protein synthesis. Bound to ER.
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What is the endoplasmic reticulum?
It is a membrane system. Rough ER= responsible for transport of proteins. Smooth ER= synthesis of lipids.
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What is the golgi apparatus?
Modifies proteins and other molecules e.g proteins to glycoproteins.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What is a molecule of lactose (milk sugar) derived from?

Back

An B-glucose and a galactose molecule

Card 3

Front

What is the name of the process where two monosaccharides react to form a disaccharide molecule?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What is the name of the bond formed in a condensation reaction?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What is name of the process when a disaccharide molecule breaks to form a monosaccharide?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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