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  • Created on: 09-12-13 19:32
Genetically identical cells or organisms derived from one parent cell
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When the cytoplasm divides or cleaves.
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Binary Fission?
A method of cell division in bacteria. The DNA replicates and the cell divides into 2, each having the same DNA as the parent cell (NO MITOSIS)
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Vegetative Propagation?
When plants under go asexual reproduction using specialist parts of the plant that are derived from adult plant cells.
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A cell that doesnt contain a true nucleus (bacteria)
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How does bacteria divide?
By binary fission
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Stem cells from young embryos that can divide into any of the cell types found in an adult
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Stem cells found in small numbers in adult tissue
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What are meristem cells?
Undifferentiated plant cells capable of rapid cell division
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Where are meristems located in a plant?
at the room and shoot tips and in a ring of tissues in the stem or trunk.
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In animal cells where does cytokinesis start?
From the outside, nipping in the cell membrane and cytoplasm along a 'cleavage furrow'
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In plant cells where does cytokinesis start?
With the formation of a cell plate where the spindle equator was.
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Explain cytokinesis in a plant cell
1. A cell plate forms where the spindle equator was 2. the cell lays down the new membrane and cell wall material along plate.
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What is the cell plate like (the one formed at cytokinesis in a plant cell)
Not a solid structure but a single plane along which the new cell wall forms
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How do cells of yeast undergo cytokinesis?
By budding which is producing a small bud that nips off the cell
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What does sexual reproduction involve?
Fusing of 2 cell nuclei in order to produce off spring
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All the genetic material inside an organism or cell
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Cells containing half the adult number of chromosomes. Haploid number of chromosomes
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Diploid number of chromosomes. Made by the fusion of gametes
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What type of cell division is responsible for producing gametes?
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Give 2 ways meiosis differs from mitosis..
1. Meiosis produces cells containing half the number of chromosomes 2. Meiosis produces cells that are genetically different from each other and the parent cell.
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What do normal adult cells genome consist of?
A pair of homologous chromosomes, each containing different versions of the same gene.
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In meiosis, why would the haploid daughter cells differ?
because they contain the particular alleles of each gene found on the members of the homologous pairs the receive.
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During meiosis, what goes into each daughter cell?
one member of each homologous pair
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The changes occuring the celss of a multicellular organism so that each different type of cell become specialised to perform a specific function
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Give 3 ways cells can differentiate
1. Number of a particular organelle 2. The shape of the cell 3. some of the contents of the cell
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Where are all blood cells produced?
From undifferentiated stem cells in the bone marrow
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How are erythrocytes differentiated?
By loosing their nucleus, mitochondria, golgi apparatus and rer. Packed full of haemoglobin and become biconcave in shape.
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How are cells designed to become neutrophils(a type of white blood cell)
Keep their nucleus, cytoplasm appears granular become of the amount of lysosomes produces
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What is the role of a neutophil?
To ingest invading microorganisms
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What is an organ?
A collection of tissues working together to perform a particular function
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Organ system?
Made up of a number of organs working together to perform an overall life function
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A collection of cells that are similar to each other and perform a common function
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Plant tissue in the stem and roots that contains dividing cells
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Relatively unspecialised cell- they may be able to photosynthesise, store food or support young plants
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What are characteristics of parenchyma?
contain living contents and thin, permeable cellulose walls.
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What do xylem tissues consist of?
xylem vessels with parenchyma cells and fibres
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What do phloem tissues consist of?
sieve tubes and companion cells
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What are the 4 groups animal tissue are categorised into?
epithelial tissue,connective tissue, muscle tissue, nervous tissue
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Role of epithelial tissue?
layers and lining
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Connective tissue?
Holds structures together and provides support
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Muscle tissue?
cells specialise to contract and move parts of the body
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nervous tissue?
cells that can convert stimuli to electrical impulses and conduct those impulses
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What are squamous epithelial tissues made up of?
Cells that are flattened so are very thin
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What do squamous epithelial tissue make up?
the lining of insides of tubes (e.g. blood vessels) where fluids can pass easily over them. thin walls such as the walls of the alveoli in lungs
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What are the squamous cells help in place by?
Basement membrane
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What is the basement membrane made of?
Glycoproteins and collagen
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What is the role of the basement membrane?
Attaches epithelial cells to connective tissue
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What are ciliated epithelial tissues make up of?
column shaped cells
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Where is the ciliated epithelial tissues often found?
on the inner surface of tubes
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4 requirements of photosynthesis?
light, carbon dioxide, water, chlorophyll
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Guard cells?
specialised cells that appear in pairs on the lower epidermis
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When the cytoplasm divides or cleaves.

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Binary Fission?


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Vegetative Propagation?


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