Unit 5 revision

What joins a bone to bone?
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What joins bone to muscle?
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What is the function of a tendon?
Holds bone and bone together, flexible as it allows movement
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Why is a ligament so painful?
time needed for repair and a ligament has more elastic fibres
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Why is key hole therapy good?
short time for recovery, less tissue damage and cheaper than invasive surgery
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What happens to a plant when absorbing red light?
Pr to active form Pfr
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What happens to plants in the dark?
Pfr reverts to Pr because it is unstable
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What is flowering stimulated by?
fall in Pfr, Pfr remains high then flowers wont grow
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What is a leaf? and where are their phytochromes?
A leaf is a photreceptor and there are phytochromes in the leaves
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What are 3 benefits of a plant being able to respond to changes?
flowering happens at the right time, flowers when insects available, day length changes to set pattern
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WHy can L-Dopa be used to treat parkinsons?
L- Dopa can make dopamine in the brain, L-Dopa can enter the brain unlike dopamine and increase dopamine levels
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What are three ethical issues of using animals?
never right to use an anima, overall good outweigh harm to animals, few animals should be used as possible, welfare to animals
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how is ATP made from anaerobic respiration?
ATP from phosphorlyation of ADP, energy required for phosphorlyation, glycolysis, glucose converted pryuvate, pyruvate is converted to lactate, makes NAd and anaerobic respiration in cytoplasm
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How is the coordination of heart beat?
SAN, depolarisations, initiates depolarisation, passes through wall of atria, Atrial systole, AVN conducts ventricles, purkyne fibres, ventricular systole, AT valves close, semilunar valves opened by presure, blood forced into arteries, diastole
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What does the human genome do?
sequence human DNA, provides knowledge of human genetics
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What is meant by the term of myogenic?
stimulation generated within a muscle that brings about depolarisation
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Why can stem cells not cure blindness when it has occured from an early age?
lack of visual stimulation limits brain development, lack of connections and brain can not interpret this information correctly
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What does lack of visual stimulation mean?
limits brain development, lack of connections within visual cortex, brain can't interpret this information correctly
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What are the problems with stem cells?
stem cells becoming cancerous, people have objections to use of embryonic stem cells
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Why should environmental factors be controlled?
reduce number of variables, effect of treatment is measured
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How can athletes conserve energy during sprints?
during anaerobic respiration in the cytoplasm, in glycolysis, glucose is converted to pyruvate, ATP is made by phosphorylyation from ADP and Pi, pyruvate is converted to lactate, NAD is made, ATp releases energy
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What happens to lactate in the blood?
transported to liver and broken down, converted to pyruvate, pyruvate is then oxidised in the krebs cyce, oxygen debt and co2 and water is produced
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Why is CO2 absorbed?
Reduces volume
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Why is a syringe used?
Calibrate, back to zero
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How do you mean the rate of respiration?
Constant temperature, water bath, fixed time, measure volume
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How to obtain volume?
work out how far the liquid has moved
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What else should be controlled in this experiment?
replicates, control and welfare of animals
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How is blood flow increased?
increase in heart rate, acts as a neurotransmitter to increase SAN activity, vasodilations, increase blood flow
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What initially happens after a neurotransmitter released?
diffuses across a gap, binds to receptors on post-synaptic membrane, NA+ tavels through gated channels opening, causing depolarisation, an action potential is set up in post synaptic membrane
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What does this allow?
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What is the neurotransmitter broken down?
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What do they not get?
prolonged action potential in post synaptic membrane
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What is meant by oxidative phosphorylation?
electrons being passed along by the electron transport chain, losing energy, add a phosphate to ADP, ATPase, chemiosmosis, oxygen as final acceptor
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What changes cardiac output?
heart rate increases, stroke volume increases, SAN increases, AVN time delay decreases, ventricles contract with greater force
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How would exercise change the graph?
More peaks in the same time, distance from peak to trough would increases
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What is meant by a cruiate ligament?
In the kneww, connective tissue which connects bone to bone
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What are risks of GM?
gene transfer to other species, resistance to pesticides, GM super weeds, may not produce fertile seeds, genetic pollution
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What are the reasons for absorbing CO2?
CO2 produced in respiration, affects volume of gas
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Why do muscles occur in antagonistic pairs?
muscles themselves cant extend, they need opposing muscles to extend
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How do H+ ions keep their concentration?
They fllow diffusion gradient, causes an energy change, ATP formed
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What happens when the pupil dilates?
radial muscles relax and circular muscles contract
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What happens when the pupil contracts?
Radial muscles contract an circular muscles relax
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What happens to NAD in aerobic respiration?
Reduced NAD from glycolysis enters mitochondria, inner membrane of mitochondria, becomes oxidized, electrons transferred to electron transport chain, H+ pumped into membrane space, NAD returns to Kreb cycle
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Other cards in this set

Card 2


What joins bone to muscle?



Card 3


What is the function of a tendon?


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


Why is a ligament so painful?


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


Why is key hole therapy good?


Preview of the front of card 5
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