Unit 5 revision

HideShow resource information
What joins a bone to bone?
1 of 43
What joins bone to muscle?
2 of 43
What is the function of a tendon?
Holds bone and bone together, flexible as it allows movement
3 of 43
Why is a ligament so painful?
time needed for repair and a ligament has more elastic fibres
4 of 43
Why is key hole therapy good?
short time for recovery, less tissue damage and cheaper than invasive surgery
5 of 43
What happens to a plant when absorbing red light?
Pr to active form Pfr
6 of 43
What happens to plants in the dark?
Pfr reverts to Pr because it is unstable
7 of 43
What is flowering stimulated by?
fall in Pfr, Pfr remains high then flowers wont grow
8 of 43
What is a leaf? and where are their phytochromes?
A leaf is a photreceptor and there are phytochromes in the leaves
9 of 43
What are 3 benefits of a plant being able to respond to changes?
flowering happens at the right time, flowers when insects available, day length changes to set pattern
10 of 43
WHy can L-Dopa be used to treat parkinsons?
L- Dopa can make dopamine in the brain, L-Dopa can enter the brain unlike dopamine and increase dopamine levels
11 of 43
What are three ethical issues of using animals?
never right to use an anima, overall good outweigh harm to animals, few animals should be used as possible, welfare to animals
12 of 43
how is ATP made from anaerobic respiration?
ATP from phosphorlyation of ADP, energy required for phosphorlyation, glycolysis, glucose converted pryuvate, pyruvate is converted to lactate, makes NAd and anaerobic respiration in cytoplasm
13 of 43
How is the coordination of heart beat?
SAN, depolarisations, initiates depolarisation, passes through wall of atria, Atrial systole, AVN conducts ventricles, purkyne fibres, ventricular systole, AT valves close, semilunar valves opened by presure, blood forced into arteries, diastole
14 of 43
What does the human genome do?
sequence human DNA, provides knowledge of human genetics
15 of 43
What is meant by the term of myogenic?
stimulation generated within a muscle that brings about depolarisation
16 of 43
Why can stem cells not cure blindness when it has occured from an early age?
lack of visual stimulation limits brain development, lack of connections and brain can not interpret this information correctly
17 of 43
What does lack of visual stimulation mean?
limits brain development, lack of connections within visual cortex, brain can't interpret this information correctly
18 of 43
What are the problems with stem cells?
stem cells becoming cancerous, people have objections to use of embryonic stem cells
19 of 43
Why should environmental factors be controlled?
reduce number of variables, effect of treatment is measured
20 of 43
How can athletes conserve energy during sprints?
during anaerobic respiration in the cytoplasm, in glycolysis, glucose is converted to pyruvate, ATP is made by phosphorylyation from ADP and Pi, pyruvate is converted to lactate, NAD is made, ATp releases energy
21 of 43
What happens to lactate in the blood?
transported to liver and broken down, converted to pyruvate, pyruvate is then oxidised in the krebs cyce, oxygen debt and co2 and water is produced
22 of 43
Why is CO2 absorbed?
Reduces volume
23 of 43
Why is a syringe used?
Calibrate, back to zero
24 of 43
How do you mean the rate of respiration?
Constant temperature, water bath, fixed time, measure volume
25 of 43
How to obtain volume?
work out how far the liquid has moved
26 of 43
What else should be controlled in this experiment?
replicates, control and welfare of animals
27 of 43
How is blood flow increased?
increase in heart rate, acts as a neurotransmitter to increase SAN activity, vasodilations, increase blood flow
28 of 43
What initially happens after a neurotransmitter released?
diffuses across a gap, binds to receptors on post-synaptic membrane, NA+ tavels through gated channels opening, causing depolarisation, an action potential is set up in post synaptic membrane
29 of 43
What does this allow?
30 of 43
What is the neurotransmitter broken down?
31 of 43
What do they not get?
prolonged action potential in post synaptic membrane
32 of 43
What is meant by oxidative phosphorylation?
electrons being passed along by the electron transport chain, losing energy, add a phosphate to ADP, ATPase, chemiosmosis, oxygen as final acceptor
33 of 43
What changes cardiac output?
heart rate increases, stroke volume increases, SAN increases, AVN time delay decreases, ventricles contract with greater force
34 of 43
How would exercise change the graph?
More peaks in the same time, distance from peak to trough would increases
35 of 43
What is meant by a cruiate ligament?
In the kneww, connective tissue which connects bone to bone
36 of 43
What are risks of GM?
gene transfer to other species, resistance to pesticides, GM super weeds, may not produce fertile seeds, genetic pollution
37 of 43
What are the reasons for absorbing CO2?
CO2 produced in respiration, affects volume of gas
38 of 43
Why do muscles occur in antagonistic pairs?
muscles themselves cant extend, they need opposing muscles to extend
39 of 43
How do H+ ions keep their concentration?
They fllow diffusion gradient, causes an energy change, ATP formed
40 of 43
What happens when the pupil dilates?
radial muscles relax and circular muscles contract
41 of 43
What happens when the pupil contracts?
Radial muscles contract an circular muscles relax
42 of 43
What happens to NAD in aerobic respiration?
Reduced NAD from glycolysis enters mitochondria, inner membrane of mitochondria, becomes oxidized, electrons transferred to electron transport chain, H+ pumped into membrane space, NAD returns to Kreb cycle
43 of 43

Other cards in this set

Card 2


What joins bone to muscle?



Card 3


What is the function of a tendon?


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


Why is a ligament so painful?


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


Why is key hole therapy good?


Preview of the front of card 5
View more cards


No comments have yet been made

Similar Biology resources:

See all Biology resources »See all Biological molecules, organic chemistry and biochemistry resources »