Unit 5 - Responding to the environment

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  • Created by: RajKP
  • Created on: 03-02-16 10:51
Taxis (Tactic Response) ?
The directional movement of an organism in response to a stimulus... The direction of the stimulus affects the response
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PositiveTaxis
When an organism moves towards a stimulus
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NegativeTaxis
When an organism moves away from a stimulus
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Phototaxis
Organisms movement towards/away from light
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Geotaxis
Organisms movement towards/away from gravity
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Kenisis (Kinetic Resposes) ?
The random movement of an organism in reponse to a stimulus... The intensity of the stimulus affects the response
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Receptors
Found on cell surface membrane, detect a stimuli
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Stimuli
A detectable change in the external or internal environment
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Effector
Cell that brings out a response to a stimuli - produces an effect e.g. muscle cells
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Sensory Neurone
Transmits electrical impulses from receptors to the Central Nervous System (CNS)
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Motor Neurone
Transmits electrical impulses from the CNS to effectors
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Relay Neurones/ Intermediate Neurones
Transmit electrical impulses between Sensory Neurone and Motor Neurone
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Nerve Impulses
= Electrical Impulses
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Neurotransmitters
A chemical that is released from a nerve cell which transmits an impulse from a nerve cell to another nerve, muscle, organ, or other tissue. E.g. acetylcholine, adrenaline
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Reflex Arc
The pathway on neuroneslinking receptors to effectors in a simple reflex.... It is a rapid, involuntary response to a stimuli
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Gland
A group of cells specialised to secrete a useful substance E.g a hormone - the pancrease secretes insulin
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Hormones
Are chemical messengers, many are proteins or peptides (insulin) and some are steriods (progesterone)
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Chemical Mediator
A chemical messenger that acts locally (nearby cells)
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Histamine
A chemical mediator that is released in response to the body being injured or infected
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Prostaglandins
A group of chemical mediators that are produced by most cells of the body (involved in inflammation, fever and blood clotting)
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Resting Potential
When a nervous system receptor is not being stimulated, the inside on the cell is negatively charged relative to the outside
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Generator Potential
Stimulus is detected, cell membrane is excited and becomes more permeable,allowing more ions to move in to and out of the cell, altering the potential difference
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Action Potential
If the generator potential is big enough to reach the threashold level an action potential is triggered
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

When an organism moves towards a stimulus

Back

PositiveTaxis

Card 3

Front

When an organism moves away from a stimulus

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

Organisms movement towards/away from light

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

Organisms movement towards/away from gravity

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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