Unit 4 Organic Chemistry Reactions

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  • Created by: martal
  • Created on: 20-04-16 09:32
Hyrdogen Cyanide
Reacts with carbonyls by Nucleophilic addition producing hydroxynitriles. CN- attacks the C=O bond and attaches to delta +ve carbon and then H from hyrgogen cyanide attaches to negative O
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Brady's Reagent
Forms a bright orange precip if carbonyl group is present. Each different carbonyl compund gives crustalline derivative wit different melting point
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Tollens' Reagent
Colourless solution of silver nitrate dissolved in aqueous ammonia. When heated in test tube with an aldehyde a silver mirror forms after a few minutes
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Fehling's solution
Blue solution of complaxed copper (II) ions dissolved in sodium hydrovide. If heated with an aldehyde the copper (II) ions are reduced to a brick-red precip of copper (I) oxide
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Benedict's solution
Same as Fehling's solution but copper (II) ions dissolved in sodium carbonate. Still get brick- red precip of copper (I) oxide
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Acidicfied dichromate (VI) ions
If you heat an aldehyde with acidified dichromate (VI) ions you get a carboxylic acid. Dichromate (VI) ions are thr [O] and potassium dichromate (VI) with dilute sulfuric acid often used. Ketones won't oxidise with acidified dichromate (VI)
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Reduction back to Alcohol
Reducing agent couold be LiAlH4 in dry diethyl ether as provides the [H]. Aldehydes to primary alcohol and ketones to secondary.
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Reaction with Iodine
Carbonyls that contail a methyl carbonyl group will react with iodine in presence of an alkali. If there is a methyl group you get a yellow precip of CHI3 and an antiseptic smell. Either Ethanal or ketone with at least one CH3 group
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Oxidation of primary alcohols and aldehydes
Oxidising primary alcohol to aldehyde and then oxiding the aldehyde gives a carboxylic acid
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Hydrolysis of nitriles
Refluxing a nitrile with dilute HCL and distiling off the prouct gives you a carboxylic acid
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Carboxylic acids+alkalis
Neutralises the carboxylic acid to form salts and water. H from -COOH is replaced by the alkali
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Carboxylic acids+carbonates
Gives salt, C02 and water. H from the -COOH is replaced by the alkali
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Reduction of Carboxylic acid
Done using LiAlH4 in dry diethyl ether and reuces it to an alcohol in one go
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Carboxylic acid+phosphorus (V) chloride
Gives an acyl chloride. Funcation group is O=C=Cl
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Alcohol+Carboxylic acid
Gives an ester. Needs to be done in presence of an acid catalyst. This is esterification
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Acid Hydrolosis of Ester
Gives acid and an alcohol. Reflux ester with dilute acid such as HCL or sulfuric
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Base hydrolysis of Ester
Reflux the ester with dilute alkali such as sodium hydroxide. Gives carboxylate ion and an alcohol
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Transesterification
Reacting an ester with an alcohol to get a new ester. Allows for swapping of alcohol part of ester.
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Dicarboxylic acids+diols
Make Polysters. Carboxylic groups react with hyrdoxyl geroups to form ester links
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Acyl Chloride+H20
Vigorous reaction with cold water to give carboxylic acid. Cl subsitituted by the -OH giving fumes of HCL
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Acyl Chloride+alcohols
Vigorous reaction at room temp giving an ester. Cl subsitituted by the O-CH3 giving fumes of HCL
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Acyl Chloride+ammonia
Violent reaction at room temp to give an amide. Cl subsitituted by the NH2 giving fumes of HCL
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Acyl Chloride+amines
Violent reaction at room temp to give N-substituted amide. Cl subsitituted by the NHCH3 giving fumes of HCL
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Brady's Reagent

Back

Forms a bright orange precip if carbonyl group is present. Each different carbonyl compund gives crustalline derivative wit different melting point

Card 3

Front

Tollens' Reagent

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Fehling's solution

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Benedict's solution

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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