UNIT 3 GEOGRAPHY KEYWORDS

Aid
Help and assistance given by one group to another. Often aid refers to financial and technical help given by developed world governments and NGOs to the developing world.
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Alternative Technology
Technology designed to be environmentally sustainable and to minimise resource consumption.
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Appropriate Technology
Technology that is adapted to suit local conditions: it can be high-tech or low-tech.
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Biodiversity
The range of genetic, species or ecosystem diversity in a given area.
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Biomagnification
The progressive concentration of pollutants up the food web, towards top predators.
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Biome
A global-scale ecosystem, such as a tropical forest or tundra.
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Bottom-Up
Management and problem-solving which comes from within a community, often using local skills and resources.
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Carrying Capacity
The population size that an area's resources can support without long-term degradation. It is related to technology as well as resource quantity.
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CCS (carbon capture and storage)
Extracting carbon dioxide from exhaust gases before it is released into the environment, and storing it, usually underground.
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Conservation
The active management of areas, ecosystems and landscape. It seeks to balance the need to protect and conserve with the demands of human activity.
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Contested Space
A location which is the subject of conflict over how it should be used.
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Desalination
The removal of salt from seawater to make it fit for humans to drink.
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Desertification
Land turning to desert, often involving increased aridity and vegetation loss, usually as a result of human mismanagement.
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Development
The process of improving the human condition. Often it describes economic growth and industrialisation, but it should also include improvement of human health and wellbeing.
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Development Gap
The widening income and prosperity gap between the global 'haves' of the developed world and the 'have-nots' of the developing world, especially the least developed countries.
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Digital Divide
The gap between those in the developed world who have access to digital communications and those in the developing world who do not.
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Ecosystem Services
The benefits ecosystems provide to humans in the form of provisioning services and regulating services such as flood control.
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Ecotourism
Tourism which attempts to minimise environmental impacts and promote cultural and ecological understanding.
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Endemism
Being unique in ecological terms, e.g. species which are found nowhere else.
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Environmental Degradation
The steady decline in the quality and health of the natural environment as a result of human activities such as air and water pollution, soil erosion and ecosystem destruction.
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Eutrophication
The pollution of the ecosystems with excessive nitrate and phosphate from human activity.
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Fragile (fragility)
Describes ecosystems and landforms which are easily damaged or destroyed and vulnerable to change.
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Gene Pool
A measure of biodiversity based on the number of unique genes in an ecosystem.
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Geopolitics
Global-scale political systems, allegiances and negotiations, including global governance and agreements.
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Globalisation
The economic process of increased global connectedness and interdependence resulting from rapid increases in trade, financial flows, global communication and migration.
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Habitat
The ecological and environmental area a species lives in.
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Initial Advantage
The benefit gained by developed countries through developing first; those which developed later are always in a race to catch up.
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In Situ/Ex Situ
The conservation of species in their natural habitat (in situ) or in another place (ex situ), e.g. in a zoo or game park by captive breeding.
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Intergovernmental Organisation (IGO)
A group or organisation made up of different member states, such as the UN or the EU.
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Intermediate Technology
Low-technology solutions which are often cheap, easy to build and maintain, adaptable to local conditions and labour-intensive. Many are environmentally friendly.
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Investment
The allocation of money or resources into an area by a company or government in order to make a profit. Often this is in the form of commercial property or factory development. When the investment is from one country to another it is called FDI.
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Knowledge Economy
Economic growth based on information and data rather than products and services. Knowledge becomes a saleable commodity.
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Megaproject
An expensive, large-scale civil engineering project, usually with major impacts.
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Monopoly
Control over a product or technology by one company or individual to the extent that there is no competition.
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Neo-Malthusians
Modern-day followers of the idea of Thomas Malthus. They believe population will eventually outstrip available natural resources.
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OPEC
The 12 nations of the Organisation of Petroleum Exporting Countries. They are all net oil exporters, accounting for two-thirds of world oil reserves.
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Peripheral
On the edge, not part of the core, especially in an economic and political sense.
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Phenology
The study of the seasonal behaviour of plants and animals, which may indicate climate change.
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Plagioclimax
An ecosystem which has developed as a result of human activity.
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Primary Production
The conversion of energy from sunlight into chemical energy by plants through photosynthesis to produce new biomass.
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Relict
Small, isolated, vulnerable pockets of plant or animal species which are extinct across their broader ecological range.
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Restoration
Returning a degraded ecosystem or natural system to its former state.
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Superpower
A country with dominant global political and economic influence.
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Sustainable
Describes actions and processes which minimise negative consequences for the environment and ecosystems and promote human wellbeing.
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Sustainable Development
Development that meets the environmental, economic and social needs of today's population without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.
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Top-Down
Management solutions and other measures imposed from above, e.g. by national governments.
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Trade
The change of goods and services, usually involving money.
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Trophic Level
The position an organism occupies in the food chain.
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Wellbeing
The health of either humans or ecosystems. It is increasingly recognised that human wellbeing depends on healthy ecosystems and a healthy environment.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Alternative Technology

Back

Technology designed to be environmentally sustainable and to minimise resource consumption.

Card 3

Front

Appropriate Technology

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Biodiversity

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Biomagnification

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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