UNIT 3

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Byrne and Clore (1970)
Reward/Need Satisfaction; Reward and punishment plays a role as operant conditioning shows we repeat behaviours with desirable outcomes. May be associated with positive events i.e. when we are happy (classical conditioning)
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Evaluation
Griffith and Guay; evaluated on creative task then asked to rate scorer, rated more highly if given a higher score on task. Cate et al; 337 individuals asked to assess relationship, reward level superior to all other factors
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Byrne, Clore and Smeaton (1986)
Similarity theory; Similarity promotes liking, 2 stages of relation formation dissimilarity = sorting those who are too different to ourself. Find most similar from remaining options.
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Casp and Herbener (1990)
Found that married couples with similar personalities were happier than couples with dissimilar personalities.
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Attitude alignment
Partners modify their attitudes to become more similar
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Evaluation
Rosenbaum; dissimilarity rather than similarity that would determine relationship continuation. Yoshida; Suggested only a limited view of factors were considered here and self concept, economic level and physical condition
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Thibaut and Kelley (1959)
Social exchange theory; All social behaviour is a series of exchanges in attempts to maximise profits and minimise losses. Rewards may be companionship and sex whereas losses are financially and time. Create comparison level to other relationships
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Rusbult and Martz (1995)
When investments are high (children involved) and alternatives are low (nowhere else to live, financial difficulty) this could still be considered as a profit situation even if the relationships is abusive.
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Evaluation
Criticised for too heavily focusing on the individuals perspective and ignoring social aspects and this is seen as a selfish approach
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Walster et al (1978)
Equity theory; extension on social exchange theory as it believes we strive to achieve fairness across their relationship. Any inequity creates distress (give too much and receive little, receive too much and give too little) Equity is not equality
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Clark and Mills (1979)
Disagreed with idea that all relationships are based on economics. There are exchange relationships (colleagues) and communal relationships (friends/lovers)
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Ragsdale and Brandau-Brown (2007)
Claim that equity is an important part to relationships however does not explain the reasons that married people behave with respect to each other
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Steil and Weltman (1991)
Married working couple. Male earns more= both individuals rate male career as more important. Female higher earner= neither rates career as most important
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Duck (1999)
Relationship breakdown; Lack of skills, individual may lack interpersonal skills to maintain. Lack of stimulation, it is seen as a reward causing break down. Maintenance, cannot see each other enough
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Evaluation
Does not consider extra marital affairs as a breakdown reason. LDR relationships are very common as 70% of students have experienced one
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RollIie and Duck (2006)
Model of breakdown; Breakdown (Dissatisfaction)--Intrapsychic (social withdrawal)--Dyadic (Discuss upsets)--Social (support seeking)--Grave Dressing (tidy memories)--Ressurection (defining future relationships)
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Tashiro and Frazier (2003)
Model of breakdown based on the observations of undergrads that had recently broke up from romantic relations. They not only experienced emotional distress but also personal growth
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Intra sexual selection
Members of one sex compete with each other for access to members of the opposite sex.
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Inter sexual selection
Involves the preferences of one sex for members of the opposite sex who possess certain qualities (preference for taller men)
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Short term mating preferences
Males have a natural high desire for casual sex according to parental investment theory.
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Buss (2007)
The less time a man allows before sexual intercourse with a woman, the more women he could impregnate
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Long term mating preferences
High levels of choosiness i.e. men choose women presenting signs of fertility and reproductive value whereas women look for men able to invest resources in her and her offspring and physically protect them
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Penton-voak et al (1999)
Female mate choice varies across the menstrual cycle. In high conception risk phase women choose short term preferences i.e. men with more masculinised whereas a man with more feminised features is preferred at other points
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Parental investment
Males have the ability to opt out of parental duties unlike females.
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Maternal investment
Considerably greater than males, this is often explained by the idea of parental certainty unlike men. Men invest a small amount, women invest a larger amount in ancestory
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Paternal investment
When men do invest parentally they are at risk of cuckoldry as men have greater concern over their partners fidelity often. Men are jealous of sexual acts whereas women grow jealous of emotional focus shift
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Evaluation
To ensure good quality offspring many women marry a man with money and good other investments whilst also using extramarital affairs to gain good genes for healthy children. Estimated 14% of population outcome of affairs
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Anderson (1999)
Found men do not discriminate between biological and stepchildren so parental certainty is not necessarily always a concern
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Buss et al (1992)
US undergrads showed that males showed higher concern for sexual infidelity whereas women show more concern over emotional infidelity
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Parent-child relationships
Romance in adulthood is an integration of 3 behavioural systems acquired in infancy- attachment, caregiving and sexuality.
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Care-giving system
The care giving system is how one cares for others learned by modelling primary caregiver behaviour. Avoidant children often hold the view that sex without love is pleasurable
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Childhood abuse effects in Adulthood
Individuals who experienced physical abuse were more likely to report depression, anger and anxiety than non-abused individuals. Sexual abuse has been linked with adult psychological impairment
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Evaluate
Many studies demonstrate the link between attachment and later adult relationships
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Interaction with Peers
Children learn from experiences with other children for example the way a child thinks about itself and others is determined by specific internalised experiences .
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Romantic relations in adolescence
Serve to allow adolescents achieve the goal of separation, redirecting intense interpersonal attachments. Help learn the different type of love emotionally and physically
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Evaluation
Gender differences have been found as girls have more intimate friendships than boys. Girls also report care and security from friendship groups.
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Influence of culture
Our exposure to cultural ideals of love structure influence our expectations of love and of those we choose to love
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Western vs Non-Western - Voluntary vs non-voluntary
Many non-western areas have little mobility creating less choice for daily interactions meaning relationships become tied to family or economic resources
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Western vs Non-Western - Individual or group based
Westerners are individualist meaning the focus is on the individual whereas non western are collectivist. Moghaddam et al (1993); collectivism leads to relationships that concern the family or group (tribe etc)
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Levine et al (1995)
Investigated across 11 countries asking respondents if they would marry someone who had all of their desired qualities but they didn't love. US respondents, 14% said they would compared to 24% in India and 34% in Thailand
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Myers et al (2005)
Individuals living in arranged marriages in India had no differences in marital satisfaction compared to non arranged US marriages
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Research problems
Research into cultural differences in relationships may be limited to the research method used by researchers from different cultures
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Bandura and Walters (1963)
Social learning theory; an extension on traditional learning theory that explains we also learn by observing others for example the specifics of aggression (forms it takes, how it is enacted)
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Vicarious reinforcement
Children observe and learn about consequences of aggression by watching others be reinforced or punished
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Bandura (1986)
For social learning to take place, the child must form mental representations of events in their social environment. The child will display this learning as long as the expectation of the reward is greater than that of punishment
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Phillips (1986)
Daily homicide rates in the US almost always increased the week after a major boxing match suggesting this learning is also present in adults
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Wolfgang and Ferracuti (1967)
In large societies some subcultures develop norms that sanction violence to a greater degree than dominant culture
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Noble (1975)
There were reports that previous to the bobo doll study a child was heard saying 'Look Mummy, there's the doll we have to hit'.
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Gustave le Bon (1895)
Classic crowd theory describes how an individual is transformed when part of a crowd due to the 'collective mind'
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Deindividuation
Is a psychological state characterised by lowered self evaluation and decreased concern about evaluation by others
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Zimbardo (1969)
4 female undergrads deliver shocks to student to 'aid learning'.Half PP's wore bulky, hooded lab coats and sat in separate cubicles. Other half wore normal clothes, large name tags and were introduced. Anon PP's shocked for twice as long as known
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Postmes and Spears (1998)
Meta-analysis of 60 studies concluded there is insufficient evidence for major claims of deindividuation theory
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Spivey and Prentice-Dun (1990)
Deindividuation could lead to prosocial of antisocial behaviour depending on situational factors .
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Francis et al (2006)
Adolescents reported being significantly more comfortable seeing help with mental health issues in online chatrooms than with a personal appointment with a health professional
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Institutional aggression- prisons
70,000 Inmates were victims of sexual violence whilst behind bars in 2007
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Importation model- Irwin and Cressey
Prisoners bring their own personal social histories and traits with them influencing their adaptation into the prison environment meaning normative systems are imported into the prisons
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The Deprivation model- Paterline and Peterson (1999)
Prisoner aggression is the product of the oppressive conditions of the institution including crowding, increase in fear, frustration and staffing
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The 'pains of imprisonment' model- Sykes (1958)
Described the specific deprivations experienced within prisons potentially linked to violent increases. Loss of liberty, loss of autonomy and loss of privacy. Causes increase in anxiety, some withdraw others rebel
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Evaluate- Importation
Harer and Steffensmeier (2006); 58 US prisons. Found higher rates of violence in black inmates but lower rates of drug and alcohol abuse, the opposite was true for white inmates. Parallels racial differences in US society
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Evaluate- Deprivation
Nijiman et al (1999) found that increased personal space failed to decrease levels of violence
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Institutional aggression- Genocide
1. Difficult social conditions 2. Scapegoat less powerful group 3.Dehumanisation of target group 4. Moral values inapplicable, killing begins 5. Passivity of bystanders
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Neurotransmitters and aggression
Serotonin increase thought to reduce aggression. Increases in dopamine may increase aggressive behaviour
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Mann et al (1990)
35 healthy subjects given dexfenfluramine, known to deplete serotonin. Treatment in males was associated with higher hostility and aggression on an anger rating scale
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Lavine (1997)
Increases in dopamine due to amphetamine use has been associated with increased aggressive behaviour
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Hormonal mechanisms
The male sex hormone testosterone is believed to increase aggression due to the actions on brain areas involved in aggression control. Cortisol is thought to be an aggression mediator as it increases anxiety and causes social withdrawal
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Dabbs et al (1987)
Tested violent and non-violent offenders for salivary testosterone levels. Found that those with high testosterone had a primarily violent criminal history. Those with lower testosterone were primarily non violent
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Virkkunen (1985)
High levels of cortisol inhibit testosterone therefor inhibit aggression. Studies have reported low levels of cortisol in habitual offenders.
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Raleigh et al (1991)
Added support for importance of serotonin in aggression.Vervet monkey study showed that monkeys fed on a diet that increases serotonin levels showed decreased aggressive behaviour. Those on low serotonin showed increased aggression
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Couppis and Kennedy (2008)
In mice, a brain reward pathway becomes engaged in response to an aggressive event and dopamine is a positive reinforcer of this act. Some individuals may seek aggression for this positive reward feeling
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Albert et al (1993)
Despite many studies showing + correlation with testosterone and aggression, many found no such correlation at all. Some found more testosterone = less aggressive
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Mazur (1985)
Many studies do not distinguish aggression from dominance. They act aggressively with intent to inflict injury and dominance is used to achieve or maintain status over others
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Genetic factors in aggression
Attempts to determine the role of genetic factors in aggression creating the nature vs nurture debate.
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Hutchings and Mednick (1975)
Study of 14,000 adoptions in Denmark found that a significant number of adopted boys with criminal convictions had biological parents with criminal convictions
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MAOA
Monoamine Oxidase A
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Brunner et al (1993)
Dutch family found many of its males behaved in a particularly violent/aggressive manner with serious crimes including **** and arson. The men were found to have abnormally low levels of MAOA and a defect in this gene was later found
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Caspi et al (2002)
500 male children, discovered a variant of the gene associated with high MAOA and one for low MAOA. High MAOA+ maltreated = no antisocial. Low MAOA+ well treated= no antisocial
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Walters (1992)
Found only a low to moderate correlation between heredity and crime with more recent research providing less support for the gene-crime hypothesis than earlier studies.
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Daly and Wilson (1988)
Men have evolved several different strategies to deter female partner committing adultery. These range from vigilance to violence, all of which fuelled by sexual jealousy. This minimises risk of cuckoldry
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Buss (1998)
Men use techniques such as 'direct guarding'; restricting the females autonomy and 'negative inducements';in the form of violence or threats of violence to stop straying
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Dell (1984)
Sexual jealousy accounted for 17% of all murders in the UK
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Camilleri (2004)
Sexual assault of a female by her male partner was directly linked with perceived infidelity risk
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Daly and Wilson (1988)
Uxoricide (wife-killing) is an unintended outcome of an evolutionary adaptation used for control rather than death
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Xenophobia
A fear or hatred of strangers or foreigners
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Wong (1989)
Mechanisms that prompt suspicion of strangers is favoured by natural selection enabling attack avoidance and more offspring
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Podaliri and Balestri (1998)
Found evidence of Xenophobic tendencies when analysing group displays of Italian football crowds
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Threat displays
Based on territoriality as it is a protective response to potential or ongoing space invasion creating an attack with greater vigour when defending home territory
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Neave and Wolfson (2003)
Football teams playing at home were more likely to win due to a testosterone surge pre match. It was suggested this may be due to an evolved drive to defend home turf leading to more aggressive behaviour
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Chagnon (1988)
Male warriors in traditional societies often have more sexual partners and children than other men showing a direct correlation between aggression and reproduction
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Irons (2004)`
Suggested scars and mutilation suggest a permanent hold within the group and signal their level of commitment. By demonstrating this they profit from warfare against other groups
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Foldesi (1996)
Evidence to support xenophobia and violent displays in hungarian football crowds. Found the racist core conduct of extremist supporters led to increased spectator violence
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Van Vugt (2010)
Found that military men have greater sex appeal only if they have been observed showing signs of bravery
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LeBlanc and Register (2004)
Suggest that in fact aggressive displays and warfare are not biological compulsions but are a consequence of environmental changes such as rising population with lowered food supplies
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Limitation
It becomes questionable as to why we as a species decide to torture or mutilate trapped opponents even though they pose no threat. This has not been found in non-human species
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Social learning- Parental modelling
Brown and Ogden; found consistent correlations between parents and children in terms of snack food intake, eating motivations and body dissatisfaction
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Social learning- Media effects
Macintyre et al; Media have an impact both on what people eat and their attitudes to certain foods. May be limitations to this based on age, income and family circumstances
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Cultural influences- Ethnicity
Ball and Kennardy; 14,000 Australian women studied,between ages 18-23. Results showed that in all ethnic groups the longer the time spent in Australia, the more women reported attitudes towards eating behaviours similar to born australians
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Cultural differences- Social class
Dornbusch et al; 7000 American Adolescents, concluded that higher class females had a greater desire to be thin than their lower class counterparts
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Mood and Eating behaviour- Binge-eating
Davis et al; One hour before a binge Bulimic individuals had more negative mood states than one hour before a normal snack or meal
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Mood and Eating behaviour- Comfort-eating
Garg et al; Food choices of 38 PP's when watching either a funny movie or a depressing one. Found that when watching a sad movie they consumed 38% more popcorn than the upbeat watchers and those watching the upbeat film preferred the grapes
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Social learning- Meyer and Gast
Studied 10-12 year old boys and girls and found a significant correlation between peer influence and disordered eating with the likeability of peers being the most important influencing factor
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Cultural influences- Ethnic research
Mumford et al; reported more incidence of bulimia amongst Asian schoolgirls than white counterparts. Striegel-Moore et al; found more evidence of drive for thinness in black girls than white. Disproves the idea white females have strongest desire
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Cultural influences- Social class research
Story et al; found that higher social class was related to greater satisfaction with weight and lower rates of weight control behaviour
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Boundary model- Herman and Polivy
Hunger keeps intake above a certain minimum and satiety keeps it below a maximum level. Dieters create a diet boundary between hunger and satiety. Once they have gone over their desired intake level they continue eating until reaching satiety
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Restraint theory- Herman and Mack
Developed to explain both causes and consequences of cognitive restriction of food intake, they suggested attempting to restrict intake actually caused increases in overeating
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Wegner et al (1987)
Asked some PP's not to think about a white bear but to ring a bell if they did and told others to think about the bear. Results showed those asked not to think about the bear in fact thought about it more
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Key to successful dieting- Redden
The secret lies in the attention we pay to what we eat by focusing on the details of a salad for example we become less bored
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Ogden (1994)
Obesity may not be caused by overeating but overeating may be a consequence of obesity if restraint is suggested as a method of dieting treatment
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Higgins and Gray (1999)
Meta-analysis of anti-dieting programmes found that participation in these programmes was associated with both improvements in eating behaviour and psychological wellbeing. It also showed control of weight stability rather than loss
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Anecdotal evidence
Many studies in dieting use anecdotal evidence, many people may exaggerate about their dieting success and some may be withheld about these matters
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Park et al (2001)
Found that Asian children and adolescents have a naturally greater central fat *** when compared to Europeans and other ethnic groups
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Homeostasis
Detect the state of internal environment and correct the situation to restore the environment to its optimal point.
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Lateral hypothalamus
An important part of homeostasis eating system as it creates feelings of hunger. It was found in the 1950's that rats with damage to the LH were found to have the condition Aphagia (absence of eating)
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Ventromedial hypothalamus
This creates feelings of satiation due to the glucose level rise therefor inhibiting feeding.
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The amygdala
Primary function is thought to be in the selection of foods. Rolls and Rolls found that removal of the Amygdala caused the rats to consume both novel and familiar foods indiscriminately
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Inferior frontal cortex
Receives messages from the Olfactory bulb which is responsible for smell. Damage to inferior frontal cortex is thought to decrease eating because of diminished sensory responses to food odour and probably taste
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Homeostatic evaluation
To be an adaptive mechanism it should both anticipate and prevent energy deficit not simply react.
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LH evaluation
In testing of the damaged LH they also found deficits on other behaviours such as thirst and sex. It is to as important as previously thought
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VH evaluation
Gold (1973) Lesions restricted to the LH alone did not produce hyperphagia and only produced overeating when including paraventricular nucleus
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Environment of evolutionary adaptation (EEA)
Refers to the environment in which a species first evolved
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Early diets
Humans used to be hunter gatherers whose diet included animals and plants from their natural environment. Preference to fatty foods would have been adaptive for early humans because EEA conditions meant energy sources were needed to find next meal
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Preference for meat
Human ancestors found a preference for meat to compensate for the decline in quality plant foods due to receding forests. Milton; claims humans could not have secured enough nutrition to evolve to todays beings without meat
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Bait shyness
Garcia et al; Rats who had been made ill by radiation shortly after eating saccharin developed an aversion to it quickly following their illness
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Adaptive advantages to taste aversion
Not only taste but also odour. It was vital to survival of early ancestors as if they ate poisonous foods and survived they would not make the same mistake again.
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Importance of calories
Gibson and Wardle found the best way to find which veg and fruit would be preferred by 4/5 year olds was how dense they were in calories, bananas and potatoes were most likely to be chosen. Demonstrates the evolved preference for calorie-rich foods
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Clinical characteristics
1. Anxiety 2. Weight 3. Body image distortion 4. Amenorrhoea
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Psychological explanations- Culture
Believed that Western standards of attractiveness is an important factor of AN development.
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Cultural ideals- Gregory et al
16% of 15-18 year old UK girls were currently on a diet
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Ethnicity- Grabe and Hyde
Found a difference between African-American and Caucasian and Hispanic females as African-Americans reported significantly less body dissatisfaction than the other two groups
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Ethnicity- Pollack
In many non-western cultures there is a more positive attitude to large body sizes as they are associated with attractiveness, fertility and nurturance
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Peer influence- Jones and Crawford
Found that underweight boys and girls are most likely to be teased by peers. Suggesting that through teasing, peers enforced gender-based ideals
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Hilde and Bruch
Claims origins of AN are in early childhood. If parent responds effectively to childs needs i.e. feeding them when they are hungry AN should not develop. Ineffective parents who fail to respond to childs needs can cause confusion
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Perfectionism- Strober et al
Retrospectively evaluated personality traits of adolescents receiving treatment for AN. They found perfectionist traits in 73% of females and 50% of males
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Impulsiveness- Butler and Montgomery
Compared to a control group, AN patients reacted rapidly but incorrectly to a performance task. This indicates behavioural impulsiveness
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Hoek et al
Tested that AN is rare in non-western cultures. Researched hospital admissions in Curacao 1987-89 (island where it is acceptable to be overweight) and found 6 cases, this is around the same rate as western cultures
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Cachelin and Regan (2006)
Found no significant difference between African-American and Caucasian PP's in disordered eating
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Bruch's psychodynamic explanation
Adolescents with AN were often found that their parents seemed to define their needs for them rather than defining their own and rely excessively on the opinions of others
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Methodological problems
Some patients researched may have personality traits brought on by the AN due to starvation
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Serotonin- Bailer et al
Compared recovering restricting anorexics and binge/purge anorexics with healthy controls. Significantly higher serotonin in binge/purge, Highest serotonin in most anxious individuals suggesting anxiety may trigger AN onset
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Dopamine- Kaye et al
PET scan compare dopamine in 10 recovering AN and 12 healthy control fem. Found over activity in dopamine receptors in basal ganglia, part of the Brain pleasure/harm are interpreted. AN may not associate good feelings with common pleasures (food)
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Neurodevelopment- Lindberg and Hern
Found significant association between premature birth and AN development. Birth complications for example lack of oxygen may impair child neurodevelopment.
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Neurodevelopment-Bulik et al
Suggests AN mothers expose child to double disadvantage as they expose child to genetic vulnerability to AN and inadequate nutrition
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Neurodevelopment- Eagles et al
Children with AN more likely to be born in Spring due to intrauterine infections becoming more susceptible at time of conception due to temperature
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Surbey
Reproductive suppression; AN is evolutionary as adolescent girls would weight control to delay sexual maturation onset. It allows female to avoid giving birth at a time when conditions are not conducive to her offsprings survival.
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Guisinger
'Adapted to flee'; Typical AN symptoms of food restriction, hyperactivity and starvation denial matches adaptive mechanisms that caused migration due to local famine
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Kaye et al
If serotonin is a cause of AN then SSRI's should stop AN however it was shown to be ineffective in AN patients and was only shown to prevent relapse
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Castro-Fornieles et al
Found high levels of dopamine waste product (homovanillic acid). Improvement in weight was associated with normalisation of these levles
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Eagles et al
Anorexic individuals tended to be later in birth order (they are the youngest sibling for example) compared to healthy individuals
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Problems with evolutionary
Why are AN symptoms passed on by natural selection due to it decreasing fertility and potentially killing the individual
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Gender bias
Majority studies focus on females with AN however 25% of adults with eating disorders are male.
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Griffith and Guay; evaluated on creative task then asked to rate scorer, rated more highly if given a higher score on task. Cate et al; 337 individuals asked to assess relationship, reward level superior to all other factors

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Evaluation

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Similarity theory; Similarity promotes liking, 2 stages of relation formation dissimilarity = sorting those who are too different to ourself. Find most similar from remaining options.

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Found that married couples with similar personalities were happier than couples with dissimilar personalities.

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Partners modify their attitudes to become more similar

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