Unit 2 (Vocab)

Cell Membrane
The semi-permeable phospholipid bilayer surrounding the cytoplasm of a cell.
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Cell Wall
A rigid layer of carbohydrate lying outside the cell membrane of the cells of plants, fungi, and bacteria.
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An organelle in green plant cells which contains chlorophyll and in which photosynthesis takes place.
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A microscopic hair-like structure found in large numbers on the surface of certain cells which moves things with a whip-like motion.
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The area of a cell where chemical reactions take place and organelles are found.
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The female sex cell in animals; an ovum.
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Relating to the thin tissue forming the outer layer of a body's surface such as skin or throat lining.
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Genetic Code
The order of DNA bases which determine protein production in organisms. All the genes of an organism.
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Guard Cells
A pair of curved cells which control whether the stoma of a plant is open or closed.
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A red protein responsible for transporting oxygen in the blood of vertebrates. Forms oxyhaemoglobin when bound to oxygen.
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The inner tissue of a leaf, containing many chloroplasts.
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An organelle found in large numbers in most cells, in which the aerobic stage of respiration takes place.
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A long specialised cell transmitting messages throughout the body as electric impulses; a nerve cell.
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An organelle present in most cells, typically a single rounded structure containing the genetic material.
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Palisade Cell
Columnar cells which are packed tightly together near the surface of the leaf which contain a lot of chloroplasts to maximise photosynthesis.
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Phloem Cell
Transport cells in plants with sieve plates between cells allowing the transport of sugars in any direction within the plant.
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The process by which green plants use light energy, water and carbon dioxide to make glucose. Photosynthesis in plants generally involves the green pigment chlorophyll and generates oxygen as a by-product.
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The male sex cell in flowering plants. Typically yellow and the main cause of hay fever.
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Red Blood Cells
A typically biconcave cell lacking a nucleus to allow more room for oxygen-carrying haemoglobin.
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Root Hair Cell
Outer cell in the root of plants which has a large surface area to maximise absorption of water and nutrients.
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The male sex cell in animals. Typically smaller than the female sex cell with a flagellum for swimming.
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Small pores on the underside of leaves which allow movement of gases in and out of the leaf.
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Structural Hierarchy
An order of largest to smallest or vice versa.
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A space or vesicle within the cytoplasm of a cell typically containing fluid.
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Hollow transport vessel in plants which allows the transport of water and minerals up the plant from the roots towards the leaves in one direction.
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Alzheimer's Disease
A loss of mental ability with no known cause usually associated with old age and family history.
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A device or medication used to prevent pregnancy and/or the the spread of sexually transmitted infections.
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To change and make different; to make distinguishable from other similar cells.
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The early reproductive effort of a mammal formed during the very early stages of pregnancy.
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A description for something which is in the early stages of development.
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A combination of two different species, especially relating to those created by human involvement.
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Being situated or acting between two points; a middle stage.
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In Vitro Fertilisation. The fertilisation of an egg in an artificial environment, outside of the body. Specialist treatment for humans who need assistance getting pregnant.
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A type of cell division that results in two daughter cells each having the same number and kind of chromosomes as the parent.
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Parkinson's Disease
A neurologic disease believed to be caused by deterioration of the brain cells, occurring primarily after the age of sixty, characterised by tremors, especially in the hands.
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Umbilical Cord
A cord connecting the embryo or foetus with the placenta of the mother and transporting nourishment from the mother and wastes from the foetus.
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The long thin part of a neuron that transmits impulses away from the cell body.
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The branches of a neuron that transmit impulses towards the cell body.
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A glucose regulation disorder characterised by increased urine and fatigue.
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An organ or cell that carries out a response to a nerve impulse, for instance a muscle.
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Endocrine Gland
Any of the various glands, such as the thyroid, adrenal, and pituitary glands that secrete certain substances or hormones directly into the blood or lymph.
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A hormone secreted by the pancreas that increases glucose levels in the blood.
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A six-carbon sugar used in respiration.
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A storage molecule found in the liver which is made up of long branching chains of glucose.
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A hormone secreted by the pancreas that reduces glucose levels in the blood.
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The circular muscle surrounding the pupil of the eye that contracts and expands to let in varying levels of light. Associated with the colour of an eye.
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The condition of being very fat or overweight; having a body mass index greater than twenty-five.
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An end organ or a group of end organs of sensory neurons specialised to be sensitive to stimulating agents, such as touch or heat.
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Something that incites to action or exertion or quickens action, feeling, thought, et cetera.
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A region where nerve impulses are transmitted and received, encompassing the axon terminal of a neuron that releases neurotransmitters in response to an impulse; an extremely small gap across which the neurotransmitters travel between neurons.
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Target Tissue
A tissue with receptors which will only bind to specific proteins or hormones which in turn trigger a change or response.
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Pollen producing organ in flowering plants found at the end of the stamen. Nutrients supplied by filament.
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A large group of single celled micro-organisms which have cell walls but lack organelles and an organised nucleus.
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Narrow opening at the lower part of the uterus which sperm must travel through during reproduction and which a baby must pass through during birth.
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A thread-like structure made of DNA found in the nuclei of most living cells, carrying genetic information.
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Containing two complete sets of chromosomes, one from each parent.
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A mature haploid male or female sex cell.
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A distinct sequence of bases forming part of a chromosome which code for an individual protein.
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An organ which produces haploid sex cells for use in sexual reproduction.
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Having a single set of unpaired chromosomes.
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A new organism produced in the process of reproduction which can have one or more parents.
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Female reproductive organ in plants.
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Male gland of the reproductive system which contributes approximately thirty percent of semen fluid and has muscles which help *********** of semen.
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A simple microscopic aquatic animal usually in the size rang of a tenth to a half of a millimetre.
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Seminal Vesicles
Pair of glands in the male reproductive system which contribute approximately seventy percent of semen including proteins and sugar.
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Male reproductive organ in plants consisting of anther and filament.
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The top of the female reproductive organ in plants which receives the pollen to begin fertilisation.
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The 'neck' of the pistil which only allows pollen tubes from the same species to reach the ovary.
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A diploid cell resulting from the fusion of two haploid gametes which can develop into an embryo.
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A variant form of a gene. Some genes have a variety of different forms which are located at the same position on a chromosome.
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Based on random choice or personal whim, rather than any reason or system.
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Cystic Fibrosis
A genetic disorder causing mucus to be thicker which leads to chronic lung infections, difficulty breathing and occasionally deformity.
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Deoxyribonucleic Acid. The chemical that contains the genetic code for each individual organism.
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Having power and influence over others. In genetics, the dominant allele is expressed over the recessive one.
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Fusion of the nuclei of two haploid gametes to produce a diploid zygote.
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Denotes the role of sons and daughters.
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The offspring of a certain parent or couple, considered as a step in natural descent.
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The genetic makeup of an organism with reference to a single trait or set of traits.
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Having non-matching pairs of genes for any inherited characteristic.
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Having matching pairs of genes for any inherited characteristic.
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The mating of closely related individuals which tends to increase appearance of recessive traits due to an increased chance of homozygosity.
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To take or receive by succession.
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Pedigree Chart
A diagram that shows the occurrence and appearance of a particular gene and its ancestors from one generation to the next.
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The physical appearance of an organism resulting from the genotype.
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A single characteristic which is controlled by a group of multiple genes. Usually associated with continuous variation.
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Punnett Square
A diagram that is used to predict an outcome of a particular breeding experiment. Used by biologists to determine the probability of an offspring having a particular genotype.
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The proportional relation between two similar measures.
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Tendency to recede and hide. In genetics, the recessive allele is not expressed when paired with a dominant allele.
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Sickle Cell Anaemia
Inherited genetic disorder which causes red blood cells to be deformed and reduce oxygen carrying capacity. Thought to have evolved as a defence mechanism against malaria.
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A number of different types of things, especially ones in the same general category; a category within a species, based on some inherited difference.
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Capillary Action
The ability of a liquid to flow in narrow spaces without the assistance of, and in opposition to, external forces like gravity.
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Shaped like a column.
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The non-living protective top layer found on leaves of plants.
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The outermost layer of cells in an organism. In animals it refers to the top layer of skin cells.
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When a liquid becomes a gas and diffuses into the surrounding air.
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A plant cell that is limp through a reduction of water pressure inside the cell.
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The amount of water vapour in the air.
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Rigid organic polymer which is a key component of xylem vessels as well as the wood and bark of plants.
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Diffusion of water from an area of high water concentration to an area of lower water concentration.
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Evaporation of water from the leaves of plants.
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Swollen due to high water content.
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Vascular structure which in plants contains the xylem and phloem and is enclosed by the bundle sheath.
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A hollow cavity at the end of the respiratory pathway in mammalian lungs. The site of gas exchange in mammals.
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Amino Acid
A simple organic compound that occurs naturally in plant and animal tissues and forms the basic constituents of proteins.
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The main artery in the human body, originating from the left ventricle of the heart and extending down to the abdomen, where it splits into two smaller arteries.
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One of two upper chambers in the heart which blood enters from the veins before passing to the ventricle.
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The increasingly narrow airways which connect the alveolus in the lungs to the bronchus.
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One of the two airways formed when the trachea splits towards the left and right lungs.
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A soft flexible connective tissue found in animals which has a degree of rigidity to it.
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The passive movement of molecules to an area of lower concentration.
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Waste matter remaining after food has been digested.
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Fatty Acid
Long-chain hydrocarbon attached to carboxyl group. Derived from the breakdown of fat. Secondary source of energy in mammals after glucose.
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Non-globular, fibrous protein which forms long chains to aid blood clotting.
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A living thing too small to be seen with the naked eye.
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The part of the alimentary canal which connects the throat to the stomach. In humans and other vertebrates it is a muscular tube with mucous membrane.
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A biological infectious agent that causes disease or illness to its host.
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A series of wave-like muscle contractions that moves food to different processing stations in the digestive tract.
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Term used to describe anything pertaining to the lungs.
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The final few inches of the large intestine where waste is held before passing out the anus.
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Also known as the windpipe. A wide open tube that connects the throat to the lungs for the passage of air.
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A waste product of many living organisms, and the major organic component of human urine. Formed from the oxidation of unused amino acids.
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Vena Cava
A large vein carrying deoxygenated blood into the heart. There are two in humans, the inferior vena cava which carries blood from the lower body, and the superior vena cava, which carries blood from the head, arms, and upper body.
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Small finger-like protrusions which line the walls of the small intestine in large numbers and absorb the small molecules produced by food digestion.
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Adipose Tissue
A connective tissue which stores lipids. Commonly referred to as body fat.
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Condition in which there is a deficiency of red blood cells or haemoglobin in the blood. Usually caused by lack of iron in diet.
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Common condition that causes pain and inflammation in a joint.
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Potentially serious condition where arteries become blocked, harden and narrow.
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An infection of the main airways of the lungs, causing them to become irritated and inflamed.
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Fatty substance produced by the liver or consumed in food which is healthy at low levels but can cause artery clogging at high levels.
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A chronic disease of the liver marked by degeneration of cells, inflammation, and fibrous thickening of tissue. It is typically a result of alcoholism or hepatitis.
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A chronic or persistent disorder of the mental processes marked by memory disorders, personality changes, and impaired reasoning.
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A long-term, progressive disease of the lung that primarily causes shortness of breath by damaging alveoli.
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Foetal Alcohol Syndrome
Babies born with mental and physical problems caused by drinking alcohol during pregnancy.
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A disease in which defective metabolism of uric acid causes arthritis, especially in the smaller bones of the feet, deposition of chalk-stones, and episodes of acute pain.
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Unable to engage in sexual intercourse because of inability to have and maintain an erection.
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Potent and addictive stimulant drug found in various plants including tobacco leaves.
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A serious, life-threatening medical condition that occurs when the blood supply to part of the brain is cut off.
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Visceral Fat
Fat which is stored in the abdominal cavity surrounding several important internal organs.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2


A rigid layer of carbohydrate lying outside the cell membrane of the cells of plants, fungi, and bacteria.


Cell Wall

Card 3


An organelle in green plant cells which contains chlorophyll and in which photosynthesis takes place.


Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4


A microscopic hair-like structure found in large numbers on the surface of certain cells which moves things with a whip-like motion.


Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5


The area of a cell where chemical reactions take place and organelles are found.


Preview of the back of card 5
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