UNIT 2: 'The Hay Wain' vs. 'Wanderer Above the Sea of Fog'

Which genre are the two paintings?
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Who painted 'The Hay Wain'?
John Constable.
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Who painted 'Wanderer Above the Sea of Fog'?
Caspar David Friedrich.
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When was 'The Hay Wain' painted?
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When was 'Wanderer Above the Sea of Fog' painted?
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How are the two paintings similar?
Both artists use landscape to escape the perceived evils of modern life.
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How are the two paintings different?
In their stylistic approach.
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How might Constable's approach to nature be described?
A balance of science and sentiment, the culmination of picturesque art.
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How large is 'The Haywain'?
Six foot.
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Where did Constable exhibit 'The Hay Wain'?
The Royal Academy
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How did Constable's landscape challenge the status quo?
Landscape was one of the lowest art forms- to paint it at such a grand scale elevated it to the importance of history painting.
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How might Caspar David Friedrich's approach to landscape be described?
Subjective and introspective, evocative of the sublime.
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How did Friedrich also change the face of landscape?
Made it more intense and emotional.
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Friedrich was a key member of which movement?
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Why was Friedrich a key member of the Romanticists?
His personal ideals matched with the new art form, helping shape the movement in its fledgling stage.
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What mythology does Constable create?
A lost Eden.
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What does Constable's depiction good and honest farm labour contrast with?
The immoral, urban and industrial world.
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How does Friedrich escape the perceived evils of modern life?
Through a sense of patriotism and hope that came with using the German Romantic style, as rallying cry for German nationalism.
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What does constable do in not including any industrial elements?
Avoids commentary on political conflicts.
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What was the primary agricultural conflict in England at the time?
The Luddites, in South of England who were destroying mill machinery, rural poverty banished in his work even though soldiers were returning from the Napoleonic wars (1803-1815) to no jobs.
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What does Constable's picturesque art contribute to and what was it part of?
The creation of a mythical England as part of the cultural imperative to promote the indigenous landscape.
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Why did they want to promote the indigenous landscape in England?
The popularity of 'The Grand Tour', however England was restricted by the current Napoleonic wars.
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In what way was Constable's art also ignorant?
Ignorant of the need to increase agricultural yield, as agriculture was one of England's biggest industries and in need of economical support.
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What kind of works did Friedrich detest?
Neoclassical work such as 'An Experiment on a Bird in the Air Pump' by Joseph Wright of Derby and grand scale history paintings like 'The Death of General Wolfe' by Benjamin West.
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Why did Friedrich hate this past style?
It was too heavily linked to Napoleon Bonaparte, due to the emperor's enlightenment approach to problems.
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What had happened to Germany to make them hate Napoleon so much?
Many German soldiers were killed during the wars.
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What did Romanticism provide?
A common culture that provided strength and a new set of values to unite the country.
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Who is the lone wanderer?
Colonel Friedrich Gotthard Von Brinken, a high-ranking forestry officer due to the military attire.
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How is 'Wanderer Above the Sea of Fog' a Patriotic tribute?
The Colonel was most likely killed during the wars of liberation.
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What does Constable not do?
Evoke the sublime.
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What route does Constable take?
A scientific one.
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What was Constable's empirical mindset?
Believed painting should be understood, not looked upon with blind wonder or considered as poetic aspiration (contrast to Turner, who aspired to be a painter-poet) and as a pursuit that is legitimate, scientific and mechanical.
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How did Constable capture his empirical aspirations?
Conducted plein air studies, later refining them in the studio.
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Constable: what does the precision of form do?
Creates intense realism: small brushstrokes done with a tiny sable brush, accurate use of colour, scaling and correct spatial depiction.
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Describe the lighting in Constable's work.
Meticulous with dappled light projecting onto the land and water.
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What style is characteristic of Constable' pursuit of accuracy?
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How accurate are the trees in 'The Hay Wain'?
They are identifiable by species.
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How is the cart in the river not a hay wain?
The sides are too shallow.
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What was the original name of 'The Hay Wain'?
'Landscape Noon'.
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Who coined the new name for 'The Hay Wain'?
Constable's friend, Archdeacon Fisher.
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How would you describe the name 'Landscape Noon'?
Frank and scientific.
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CONSTABLE: Why is the cart in the water?
To cool the wheels and prevent the wood from cracking.
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How is a sense of fresh air created in the vista?
The movement of clouds.
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Who influenced Constable's accuracy of the skies?
Luke Howards 'Clouds Studies', to which the artist referred to as 'skying'.
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What was Friedrich's technique?
Imagination was his outline, and so he discarded all sketches prior to painting, visualising composition with the 'inner eye'.
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How did Friedrich draw from the writings of John Ruskin?
The writer believed that nature was GOD’S SECOND BOOK, and therefore anyone who was deaf to such perception could develop his or her senses, by neglecting urges for over indulgence and sensual delights.
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How did Friedrich perceive the world?
Friedrich saw the material world as a distraction, insisting on total solitude on his sketching expeditions so that he could experience nature first hand without interruption.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2


Who painted 'The Hay Wain'?


John Constable.

Card 3


Who painted 'Wanderer Above the Sea of Fog'?


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


When was 'The Hay Wain' painted?


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


When was 'Wanderer Above the Sea of Fog' painted?


Preview of the front of card 5
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