Unit 2: Rebranding

Mainly case studies with fieldwork techniques too. Case studies include for sport, culture as well as 'less successful' examples

Give 4 research techniques.
Using blogs, newspapers and forums; Researching old photographs on museum websites; using statistics from ons.gov.uk or neighbourhood.statistics.gov.uk; researching population and economic structure change on visionofbritain.org.uk
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Give 5 fieldwork techniques/methods.
EQS/bipolar survey; business/clone town survey; drossscape/land use/goad map; interviews and perception analysis; footfall/pedestrian flows
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What are re-imaging and regeneration?
Re-imaging is positively changing the profile and reputation of an area to reflect improvements that have been made. Regeneration is the more long-term development of a more sustainable and dynamic society and economy
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What is a flagship project?
A signature building/ development in a rebranding process; with the aim to be a catalyst for rebranding. For example, 1 Canada Square building.
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Why do many countryside regions need rebranding?
Poor "image" (boring and slow); lack of transport infrastructure; brain drain of the young; houses bought up by second house buyers; farming crises (foot and mouth, swine flu etc) and supermarket competition driving down farmers' salaries
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Why do many city centres need rebranding?
CBDs congested and expensive; donut effect of buisnesses moving out of town, e.g. Bluewater; spiral of decline from maufacturing decline and global shift; peripheral movements of offices; growing poor reputation of crime and neglect
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Why do coastal regions such as Blackpool need rebranding?
They face competition from Spanish and Mediterranean resorts, especially as flight prices drop. They often have very undiverse economies and can be isolated. Jobs available in Blackpool have dropped by 6% and wages are 23% of the national average
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How did Bilbao rebrand? What kind of rebranding is this?
Bilbao was an industrial Spanish town that rebranded with the Guggenheim Museum which attracts 3.5M visitors a year. This is cultural rebranding.
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Why did Bradford need rebranding? What is its focus now?
The wool trade declined and factories closed. It now uses heritage - the Industrial Museum, the village of Saltaire as well as culture in the form of Bronte attractions. It also has a Gastronomic trail and has a Spice Project with Eden Project.
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What is dymanism in terms of economy?
A diverse, self-supporting economy; i.e. one that doesn't rely on one sector like tourism.
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What are the three main areas for why any area needs rebranding?
Economy - job loss, mechanisation, industrialisation, global shift ; Image - negative connotations, no investment ; Environment - degradation, lack of tourists
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What is a stakeholder?
Anyone with an interest (emotional, financial) in a project, or who are affected by a development. A player is a key stakeholder in a project.
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Give some urban players.
Arts Council, Heritage Lottery, Urban Splash, Homes and Communities Agency (replaced English Partnerships), London Docklands Development Coorperation (for Canary Wharf rebranding)
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Name some rural players.
EU Objective 1 (to places with less than 75% average EU GDP), ACRE, Natural England
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What kind of roles do players have?
Funding, marketing and advertising, evaluating success, decision making, developing goals to address problems, maintaining a rebranded development
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Give some players of the London 2012 Olympics
The International Olympic Committee ; National Government (set up Olympic Delivery Authority and London Development Agency); London Assembly (the Mayor); Local Borough Councils (e.g. Hackney and Newham)
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What is a "legacy" project?
One that has a lasting impact on lifestyles and gives an impression of improvement, such as getting more children to participate in sport.
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Why might a "bottom-up" approach be used?
Bottom up is the action of empowering locals to create solutions. The schemes often reflect more closely what they want and can be more considered and sustainable. Often less disruptive.
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Why did the Docklands decline?
Ships became larger, so the water wasn't deep enough, moved to Felixetowe. Shift in manufacturing abroad. Containerisation so fewer workmen needed. Poor quality housing replaced WWII damage - 1/3 unfit for habitation
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Outline the vicious cycle of urban decline
A drop in employment leads to less money circulating, thus more petty crime and poverty. There are less taxes paid to councils and so poor quality services and less investment in education. This gives the young few qualifications thus unemployment...
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Who was the key player for the Docklands regeneration?
The London Docklands Development Coorperation (1981-98) who levered private funds to regenerate the environment and develop old brownfield sites.
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Give 4 transport improvements into the Stratford area that acted as catalysts for rebranding.
The DLR, the 2000 extension of the Jubilee line, City airport, the 1990 Limehouse road link (cost £450M)
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Between 1978 and 1983, how many jobs were lost in the Docklands? What % of adult men were unemployed?
12,000 and 60%
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What kind of regeneration was Canary Wharf?
Market-led - investors were given incentives like Free Enterprise Zones (10 years free rent)
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What is a Free Enterprise Zone?
An area with low or no rent that attracts businesses to develop there; such as the London Docklands that offered 10 years free rent and lax planning controls.
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Rural rebranding often celebrates _(a)_, such as heritage eg (_(b)_). Rural industry might also specialise, for example jewellery and handmade goods. However there is also __(c)__ to attract an income at all times of year.
(a) What is already there (b) Lots of examples, e.g. Cheddar Gorge and cheese (c) diversification
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How might forests and National Parks rebrand (such as the New Forest and Thetford)?
Activities like willow weaving, painting workshops, GoApe, cycling trails and walking. They may also develop giant mazes/"safaris". The New Forest has the "Brand New Forest card" which offers discounts at local businesses across the park.
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What is diversification in the context of farm diversification?
The broadening of an enterprise beyond its core function to supplement or protect income.
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How might a farm diversify? (Any examples?)
Go Karting (Folly Farm) ; Farm shops and visitors centres (Denbies Wine Estate); B&B or Self Catering (Bridge Farm, Sailsbury); Camping and festivals (Glastonbury)
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How has Ludlow rebranded?
Ludlow became a "food town" in 1995 and now has a food fesitval every year. It supports local independents and Ludlow heritage but also attracts Michelin starred chefs and the "gastronomic experience". It is set in Ludlow Castle (heritage)
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Give an example of a film or TV trail.
The Forest of Dean uses www.visitdeanwyefilm.com to promote trails around Puzzle Wood, where programmes and films like Star Wars and Doctor Who were filmed. It has rebranded as a "magical" setting but with a strong celebrity link.
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What is valorisation? Give an example.
Adding value by conducting more of the production chain. For example, a farm processes cherries into jam to sell at a farm shop rather than selling the raw material (cherries)
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Why did Cornwall need to rebrand?
It had very seasonal unemployment (volatile) ranging from 6% in summer to 12% in winter; rural services had declined with brain drain; mining had declined; farming crises like 2001 Foot and Mouth ; wages £100 lower than UK average; poor connectivity.
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What is the Eden Project an example of?
Destination tourism, whereby tourists are attracted to any area for one attraction but are drawn to and end up spending in other sectors (multiplier effect).
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Give 4 benefits of the Eden Project for Cornish locals.
Unemployment dropped 6%; Since 2001 holiday cottage demand doubles (now 36 weeks); 75% staff previously unemployed, with 600 jobs provided; tourists spent £600M locally in first three years
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Give 2 negatives of the project.
Average journey times have increased by 30 minutes due to congestion and more CO2 is produced by the 3500 cars that can fit in the car park than in the whole of St Austell
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What is "economic leakage"? How did the Eden Project try to prevent this?
When money leaves an area and is not reinvested due to the presence of large TNCs. Eden tries to use local suppliers and encourage spending with locals (as well as offering discounts to those who take the local bus- but few do)
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Give an example of a tourist area trying to attract tourists all year round.
The Jurassic Coast attracts many visitors in the summer, for example to SSSIs and Studland Bay, however it is promoting winter visits as this is when fossils are best exposed - another reason the coastline is famous.
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Why does rural Uganda need rebranding?
Only 16% attend secondary school, fertility rate is high (7 children), 2 doctors for 30,000 in one area - and AIDS reduces the workforce considerably, only 1 girl for every 10 boys in secondary school as they may get married at 13
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What is Equatorial College School?
A school set up in 2003 in Kyarutanga to provide education for locals. It was set up by a man with a UK education, whose old school now raises money for the college. It has IT and science labs and the first students graduated in 2008.
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How might it encourage an escape from the "poverty trap"?
Women especially will have more prospects for higher paid jobs if they are educated and can support their families, and produce enough income to invest in local communities. If they have children later in life, fertility rate is decreased.
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What is the Village phone Initiative?
A rebranding project whereby locals can take out a microloan of £100 to set up a phone booth, which others pay to use. This encourages better connectivity of rural regions and can provide an income source.
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Give some reasons to suggest that the London Olympics WAS successful.
2,000 school children use the aquatic centre for lessons every week; East Village and other schemes brought 11,000 homes to London; 60,000 have visited the Copper Box arena since 2013
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Why may it not have been successful?
There has been a lack of coordination over funding between schools and sports groups, the number of people playing sport declined by 222,000 in six months, locals in Stratford did not benefit and many were evicted.
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Liverpool was city of culture in _(A)_. The focus for development was thus _(B)_, such as the Liverpool Museum that opened in _(C)_. Every two years it holds a _(D)_ that _(E)_
(A) 2008 (B) Arts and culture (C) 2011 (D) Biannual Arts Festival (E) Celebrates art from around the world.
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Why is sport a catalyst for rebranding? Give some examples.
It brings in money (multiplier effect) and can put places on the map, and improves quality of life (fitter population?). Eg London 2012, Barcelona (new ring roads, hotel accommodation up by 44.5%); Manchester 2002 (300,000 more visitors a year)
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How many jobs did Manchester 2002 Commonwealth Games create? How much investment was brought in?
20,000 jobs and £600M in investment
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What other foci did Manchester use for rebranding?
Heritage (Such as the Museum of Science and Industry); Leisure (Luxury redevelopments of Castlefields by Urban Splash (Player), restaurants); flagship/innovative architecture (Beetham Tower, Bridgewater concert hall); TV (Coronation Street set)
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Why are schemes sometimes not entirely successful? Use examples.
Not good value for money/ money runs out (Sheffield Student Games -£658M debt); Failure to meet targets (Sydney's Olympics); failure to trickle down or provide a legacy (Canary Wharf, London 2012); no public interest/visitors (Doncaster Earth centre)
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What is sustainable rebranding?
Rebranding that improves the health of the natural, social and econmic enviornment. Not just "Green schemes" like Eden; but also those that provide a range of jobs; benefit locals (not top-down); are economically viable and upkeep culture/heritage
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Give a sustainable city outside of the UK.
Curitiba, Brazil: it has numerous developments such as integrated bus lanes, recycling trade-in for food and bus passes, and green space development requirements for each floor added to every skyscraper design.
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How may London 2012 be "sustainable"?
Half the housing of the East Village (Athlete's Village) was allocated social housing. The infrastructure is being used by local school groups and sports teams; improvements of the local environment (new Olympic Park).
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What were the sustainability issues for the 2000 Sydney Olympics?
Residents exposed to poisonous dust in the clean-up, homelessness increased during the Games; police understaffed in rural areas; sustainable refrigerants not developed in time; "affordable" housing instead sold at market price to make up for debt
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However, what were the successes?
A hugely polluted area (Homebush Bay) was cleaned up. 95% waste was recycled in construction and non-toxic materials were used. 1.6 million tourists spend $6BN - a profit for the games. Traffic was reduced by keeping the events to one site.
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What is "trickle down"? Where is the effect meant to happen?
When large-scale, top-down developments benefit locals through a multiplier effect. It is meant to happen near flagship projects like Canary Wharf (investment into Poplar) but is often unsuccessful in practice - thus unsustainable.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2


Give 5 fieldwork techniques/methods.


EQS/bipolar survey; business/clone town survey; drossscape/land use/goad map; interviews and perception analysis; footfall/pedestrian flows

Card 3


What are re-imaging and regeneration?


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


What is a flagship project?


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


Why do many countryside regions need rebranding?


Preview of the front of card 5
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