Unit 2 Normans.

  • Created by: cieran_10
  • Created on: 15-05-18 17:18
What country did not exsist in 11th century Europe?
France.
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Who rule France in the 11th century?
The King of the Franks.
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When was France called France?
In the 13th century.
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What one event lead to England having central control and a single kingdom?
The unition of its forces to drive out the Vikings.
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How many lands did the Knig of the Franks have total control over?
Over 2 fiefs.
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What was the name given to the dukes and counts of France?
Vassals.
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What was the name given to the counties/duchies of France?
Fiefs.
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How did the vassals get their power?
From the King of the Franks.
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How did the King of the Franks know that the vassals would truly represent him?
By them swearing an oath to him.
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What would the King of the Franks get in return for the land he gave vassals?
He got confirmation that they would fight on behalf of them during battle.
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What is the name given to the French system of giving land in exchange for service?
The feudal system.
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What could each vassals have that English earls and thegns coul not?
Private armies.
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What was the strongest fief in France?
Normandy.
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When did Normandy start?
In the early 10th century.
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How did Normandy start?
When Viking raiders sailed downriver and came across Northern France.
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Who was the first leader in Normandy?
Rollo the Walker.
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When did Rollo become a French vassal?
In AD911.
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How did the Normans gain land throughout the various centuries?
By marriage alliances and conquest.
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What language did the Vikings adopt when in Normandy?
French.
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What three things did the Vikings adopt when in Normandy?
Their languages, laws and forms of government.
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How did the Normans rule over every part of their vast land?
Through the use of local Lords.
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When was William born?
In 1028.
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What two things did Viking raids depend on?
The speed of their ships and the brutal usre of thier battleaxes and swords.
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What two things would loyal supports of a fief army be given?
Armour and weapons.
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What three things were the Norman army provided with?
Chain mail, swords and shields.
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What were knights known as in France?
Chevaliers.
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What two things did the invnetion of the stirrup allow knights to do?
To charge at their enemies and to swing thier swords whilst staying protected on thier horses.
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When did one of Edward's Norman friends try to convicne the English to fight on horseback against the French? Where did he have land?
In the 1050s. In the west of England.
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What do most historians argue that the Normans used against the English during the Battle of Hastings and why?
They argue that they used spears instead of lances, due to the Bayeux Tapestry.
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Describe one way that French knights would abuse their power?
They would collect taxes and rent, which was more than they should have got.
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What were MOST Norman castles made from?
Earthworks and timber.
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What were SOME Norman castles made from?
From stone.
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What were French castles?
They were both the fortress and home of a knight.
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What did French castle provide for the knight and his warriors?
A safe hub to ride out fomr and to dominate the area from.
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What was the older and simpler castle?
A ringwork castle.
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Whta was the large living encloursure in a ringwork castle?
The bailey.
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What was the bailey surrounded by in a ringwork castle? (3.)
A ditch and an earthwork bank topped by a strong wooden fence.
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What was the weakest point of a ringwork castle?
The entrance.
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What was the entrance to a ring point castle guarded by?
A solid gatehouse.
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What was the new and more effective type of castle?
The motte and bailey castle.
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What was the name given to the man made mound in a motte and bailey castle/
The motte.
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What was the castle within a castle in the motte and bailey castle?
The bailey.
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Where was the motte?
Inside the bailey.
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How long would a regular motte bailey castle take to build?
7-8 days.
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How long would would a large motte and bailey castle take to build?
A few months.
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What could knights do to take land, in terms of their use of castles? (3.)
They could take the land of the local Lord or new land and then get the local people to build a castle.
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What would the timber keeps and defences soon be made from in Norman castles?
Stone.
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What was the use of stone a sign of?
A sign that the knight had successfully taken over the local area.
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Who were the knights controlled by? What did this give Normandy?
Dukes that followed Rollo. This gave Normandy stability.
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What religion were the vikings before Christianity when they were in Europe?
Paganism.
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When did Rollo convert to Christianity?
When became a vassal.
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What did the Normans begin to do from 1000, which put them a the forefront of the Church reform?
They built Pope-regarded monasteries.
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Who in the Church in Normandy did the Pope praise and for what? (5.)
The nuns and monks for their devotion, their art and their music.
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What did the Normans build in their capital city, in terms of religious architecture?
Caen abbey.
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What is the name given to the Norman style of building?
Romanesque.
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Why was the Norman architecture shown to be Romanesque?
Due to the rounded arches, which were used in the Roman empire.
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What material were Norman churches made from?
Stone.
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Name three features of Normandy just before the birth of William in 1028?
A firm government, efficient taxation and strong trading links.
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In what year did William's father die, what age was he and what did this mean for him?
In 1035, when he was 8: making him the Duke of Normandy.
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What did Norman knights do when William became the Duke?
They grabbed land and power for themselves.
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Name two ways what the Norman knights turned against each other?
By building castles and challenging authority.
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Name two ways that senior lords- in Normandy- were killed?
In battle or murdered.
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Who were the new leaders probably during the 1035 crisis?
The murderers of their predecessor.
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During what year revolt did William take control in Normandy?
During the 1047 revolt.
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Who helped William destroy the rebels of 1047?
The King of the Franks.
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How did he show similar skill to Rollo after the revolt of 1047?
He was brutal to his wrong-doers after the revolt.
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When did William take Matilda of Flanders as his wife?
In 1050.
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Why was William's connection to Flanders important?
As it gave him a lot of the power from Flanders.
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How did Matilda and William repay the Pope for allowing them to marry, even though they wee distant cousins (which was against Church rules?)
By building an abbey for each other in Caen.
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What is the name given to Matilda's abbey?
Abbaye aux Dames.
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When was Edward the Confessor lying on his deathbed?
During January of 1066.
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What does the biography of William by Edith say Edward's dying words were?
"I commend this woman and all the kingdom to your [Harold's] protection."
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Why is the biography written for Edith quire unreliable?
As she was the sister of Harold Godwinson.
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Name the three criteria that should have been met for a claim to the English throne?
The claimant should've been in the bloodline of the previous king, they should have been chosen by the previous king and they should have been chosen by the Witan.
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Name the four claimants to the English throne in 1066?
Edward Atheling, Harold Godwinson, Harald Hardrada and William, Duke of Normandy.
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Give the four attributes of Edward.
He was in the direct bloodline, he was 12, he was disinterest in the kingship and the Witan rejected his claim.
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Give the four attributes of Harold Godwinson.
He was not in the direct bloodline, he was powerful and experienced, he claimed Edward chose him in 1066 and the Witan supported his claim.
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Give the four attributes of Harald Hardrada.
He was not in the direct bloodline, he was powerful and experienced, he was endorsed by the Danish king and the Witan ignored his claim.
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Give the four attributes of William, Duke of Normandy.
His great aunt was Queen of England, he was powerful and experienced, he claimed Edward chose him in 1051 and the Witan ignored his claim.
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What were the two most likely Earls to help Harold to get the throne?
Morcar and Edwin.
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How did Harold gain the support of Edwin and Morcar?
By marrying their sister.
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When was Harold crowned as the King of England?
On the 6th of January 1066.
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How did Edgar respond to Harold's coronation? (4.)
He accepted it, as he knew that he was too young to be king and did not have the right power base ,as his father went to the Danes from Hungary for the English throne.
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How did Harald react to Harold's coronation? (2.)
He was not going to take immediate action, as he was fighting the Danes.
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How did William react to Harold's coronation?
By planning an invasion on England.
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When did the Battle of Fulford take place?
On the 20th of September 1066.
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Who was the Battle of Fulford between?
Edwin and Morcar against Harald Hardrada.
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Who won the Battle of Fulford?
Harald.
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When was the Battle of Stamford Bridge?
On the 25th of September 1066.
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Who was the Battle of Stamford between?
Harold against Harald.
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Who won the Battle of Stamford Bridge?
Harold.
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When did the Battle of Hastings take place?
On the 14th of October 1066.
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How many foot soldiers and how many knights did William bring into battle?
7000 foot soldiers and 3000 knights.
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For how many weeks were the Normans kept in Normandy due to wind?
6 weeks.
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What was the name given to the Norman camp in Normandy?
Dives-sure-Mer.
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When did William try to cross the English Channel?
On the 12th of September 1066.
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When did William's army land in Britain?
On the 27th of September 1066.
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On what date did William land at Pevensey?
The 28th of Spetember.
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What did William learn when he got to Pevensey?
That Harold had gone North to fight Harald Hardrada.
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What did William order his men to do once they got to Pevensey?
Raid the area.
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What did the raids, which the Normans carried out force Harold to do?
Go back down south to defend his people.
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What was one massive disadvantage, which Harold and the Saxons would have had when going to fight the Battle of Hastings?
That the whole army couldn't recover ot travel from the Battle of Stamford Bridge.
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When did the Battle of Hastings take place?
On hthe 14th of October 1066.
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Where did Harold choose as his defensive position? What Saxon tactic did this support?
The top of the ridge. This supported the tactic of making a housecarls' shileds, to create defensive wall for the tropps.
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What happened during the battle, which weakened the Saxon shiled wall? What did this then allow the Normans to do?
The Normans pretended to flee, meaning Saxosn left thier positions to follow them, causing breakages in the wall. Allowing them to make good use of thier archers and calvary.
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How did Harold die during the Battle of Hastings?
By a Norman arrow.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Who rule France in the 11th century?

Back

The King of the Franks.

Card 3

Front

When was France called France?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What one event lead to England having central control and a single kingdom?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

How many lands did the Knig of the Franks have total control over?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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