Unit 2: Nature of Government

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White Armies
A variety of opponents from Tsarists to Liberals, together with forgein assistance from Britain, France, USA, Japan and Poland
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Authoritarian form of government ruled by an individual party
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State holds total control over society and seeks to control all public and private life
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(Docterine of ideology) supreme power in the hands of one person/unit
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Constituent Assembly
An assembly of people that would be elected by the "people"
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Dictatorship of the Proletariat
Rule over the bourgeoisie by the workers
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Collective Leadership
Rule by a group whereby responsibilites are equally shared out
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'July Days'
A month of protests and strikes against the war and ineffectual policies of ProvGov.
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Progressive Bloc
Group within the Fourth Duma who challenged Nicholas' authority
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Kornilov Affair
A military attempt to forcefully close down the Soviet. Unsuccessful and had positive consequences for the Bolsheviks
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Petrograd Soviet
Workers council set up to campaign for workers rights; made up of Bolsheviks, Mensheviks, SRs etc
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The Personal Chancellery of his Imperial Majesty
Element of Tsarist government (1855-1905) that included Personal Secretariat, Legal Advsiers and Secret Police
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Council of Minsters (1855-1905)
Element of Tsarist government (1855-1905) that drafted legislation and consisted of officials nominated by Tsar
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Imperial Council of State
Element of Tsarist government (1855-1905) that gave advice on legal and financial matters
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Element of Tsarist government that acted as Supreme Court in Russia
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Committee of Ministers
Element of Tsarist government (1855-1905) that had responsibilty for particular aspects of administration of Russian Affairs
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Council of Ministers (1905-1917)
Element of Tsarist government (1905-1917) that become the main law-making and administrative body which provided material for lower houses to discuss
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State Council
A nominated and upper chamber of Tsarist government (1905-1917) that was to check on the activity of the Duma and, effectively, limit it's power
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Elected and lower chamber of Tsarist government that was a response to the October Manifesto and only given the authority to block laws
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All-Russian Congress of Soviets
A meeting of delegates from soviets throughout Russia to decide on the policies to be adopted by the Soviets
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The Treaty of Brest-Litovsk
Signing off of a large proportion of territory (about a third of European Russia) to Germany as well as Ukraine which was Russia most important grain-producing region. Seperate leadership within Bolshevik Party.
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The ruling executive body of Communist Russia - the equivalent to the British cabinet
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1936 Constitution
(Also know as Stalin Constitution) Redesigning of Government
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Supreme Soviet of the USSR
Given sole powers to make laws for the whole Union. Divided into two houses.
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Soviet of Union
Contained representatives of people of the whole of the USSR
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Soviet of Nationalities
Members included those from union republics, autonomous region and national areas
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Social Democrats
All Russian Social Democratic Workers Party that was the original party of the Mensheviks and the Bolsheviks before they split
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George Plekhanov
Highly respected Populist and member of the Black Repartition. Was known as the Father of Russian Communism.
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Revolutionary Groups
Narodniks, People's Will, Social Revolutionaries, Social Democrats were all Revolutionary Groups.
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Non-Revolutionary Groups
Liberals, Kadets and The Octobrists were all Non-Revolutionary Groups.
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Novocherkassk Uprising
A result of erupting food prices which caused workers to strike. Repressive methods used such as shooting and undermined the legitimacy of the "worker's state".
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Lena Goldfields Massacre
Strike by Russian gold miners protesting low wages and inhumane working conditions in 1912, brutal repression was directed at the miners of the Lena Goldfields spread quickly across the country, and mass protest strikes broke out in Petrograd
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Putilov Works
Most famous strike and was the beginning of the Feb Revolution.
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Stakhanovite Movement
The use of the image of model worker Alexei Stakhanov to prompt workers to improve efficiency with rewards
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Pioneers and Komsmol
Youth Organisations established to protect the young against the "degeneracy of bourgeois culture".
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Authoritarian form of government ruled by an individual party

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Constituent Assembly


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