Unit 2 Key Terms

Learning
A relatively permanent change in behaviour due to experience.
1 of 100
Classical Conditioning
A procedure during which an animal or person learns to associate a reflex response with a new stimulus.
2 of 100
Classical Conditioning Schedule
The steps in the procedure to condition a new response.
3 of 100
Unconditioned Stimulus (UCS)
The stimulus that produces a reflex response, such as the food for Pavlov's dog.
4 of 100
Unconditioned Response (UCR)
The reflex response to an unconditioned stimulus, such as Pavlov's dog's salivation.
5 of 100
Conditioned Stimulus (CS)
A new stimulus presented with the UCS, such as the bell in Pavlov's experiment.
6 of 100
Conditioned Response (CR)
The response that is learnt; it now occurs when the CS is presented, such as Pavlov's dog's salivation.
7 of 100
Extinction
A conditioned response dies out.
8 of 100
Spontaneous Recovery
A conditioned response that has disappeared suddenly appears again.
9 of 100
Generalisation
The conditioned response is produced when a similar stimulus to the original conditioned stimulus is presented.
10 of 100
Discrimination (With Reference To Conditioning)
The conditioned response is only produced when a specific stimulus is presented.
11 of 100
Operant Conditioning
Learning due to the consequences of behaviour, through positive reinforcement or negative reinforcement.
12 of 100
Law Of Effect
Behaviours that are followed by rewards are usually repeated; those that are punished are not usually repeated.
13 of 100
Punishment
A stimulus that weakens behaviour because it is unpleasant and we try to avoid it.
14 of 100
Reinforcement
A consequence of behaviour that encourages or strengthens a behaviour. This might be seen as a reward.
15 of 100
Positive Reinforcement
A reward or pleasant consequence that increases the likelihood that a behaviour or action will be repeated.
16 of 100
Negative Reinforcement
When an unpleasant experience is removed after a behaviour or action has been made. This increases the likelihood of that behaviour or action being repeated.
17 of 100
Behaviour Shaping
Changing behaviour in small steps.
18 of 100
Phobia
A persistent and irrational fear of an object, activity or situation. The typical symptoms are intense feelings of fear and anxiety to avoid the object, activity or situation.
19 of 100
Flooding
A treatment for phobias that involves the immediate exposure of the person to the fear object, activity or event, until there is no fear response.
20 of 100
Semantic Desensitisation
A treatment for phobias in which the person is taught to relax and then is gradually exposed to the feared object, activity or event.
21 of 100
Hierarchy Of Fears
a series of feared events ranked from least frightening to most frightening.
22 of 100
Aversion Therapy
A treatment for addictions, such as drug and alcohol dependency, which makes the addict have an extremely negative reaction to the addictive substance.
23 of 100
Primary Reinforcer
A reward, such as food or water, that the animal or person needs in order to survive.
24 of 100
Secondary Reinforcer
A reward, such as money or a token, that the animal or person can exchange for a primary reinforcer.
25 of 100
Social Influence
The effect other people have on our behaviour. This includes conformity, obedience and social loafing, for example.
26 of 100
Conformity
A change in a person's behaviour or opinions as the result of group pressure.
27 of 100
Autokinetic Response
An optical illusion, in which a spot of light on a screen appears to move, when in actual fact it doesn't.
28 of 100
Obedience
Following the orders of someone we believe to have authority.
29 of 100
Conformity
A change in a person's behaviour or opinions as the result of group pressure.
30 of 100
Socialisation
The way we are raised to behave and the things we are taught to accept as normal.
31 of 100
Buffer
Something that creates distance between the teacher and learner (e.g. a wall or another person administering the shocks).
32 of 100
Deindividuation
The state of losing our sense of individuality and becoming less aware of our own responsibility for our actions.
33 of 100
Anonymous
Being able to keep our identity hidden.
34 of 100
Mundane Realism
An everyday situation, that is life-like and not artificial.
35 of 100
Closed-Circuit Television (CCTV)
A television system often used for surveillance.
36 of 100
Social Loafing
Putting less effort into doing something when you are with others doing the same thing.
37 of 100
Culture
A group of people (usually living in one place) who share similar customs, beliefs and behaviour.
38 of 100
Diffusion Of Responibility
In a group of people there is less need for the individual to act because someone else who is present could also do something.
39 of 100
Empathy
Being able to put yourself in someone else's position psychologically and understand how that person is feeling.
40 of 100
Altruism
Helping someone without thinking of yourself, sometimes at great costs.
41 of 100
Bystander Apathy
Doing nothing in an emergency when someone is in need of help.
42 of 100
Practical Implications
Suggestions about behaviour in the real world beyond the research study, based upon what psychologists have discovered.
43 of 100
Sex Identity
A biological term. A child's sex can be identified by their hormones and chromosomes. This determines whether the child's sex identity is male or female.
44 of 100
Gender Identity
A psychological term. A child's gender can be identified by their attitudes and behaviour. This determines whether the child's gender identity is masculine or feminine.
45 of 100
Phallic Stage
Freud's third stage of psychosexual development, in which gender development takes place.
46 of 100
Identification
To adopt the attitudes and behaviour of the same-sex parent.
47 of 100
Oedipus Complex
The conflict experienced by a boy in the phallic stage because he unconsciously desires his mother and is afraid of his father.
48 of 100
Electra Complex
The conflict experienced by a girl because she unconsciously desires her father and is afraid of losing her mother's love.
49 of 100
Gender Disturbance
Not developing the gender identity usually associated with one's sex.
50 of 100
Modelling
A role model provides an example for the child.
51 of 100
Imitation
Copying behaviour of a model.
52 of 100
Vicarious Reinforcement
learning from the model's being either rewarded or punished.
53 of 100
Media
Means of communication - television, radio, the internet and newspapers are all examples of different types of media.
54 of 100
Gender Sterotypes
Believing that all males are similar and all females are similar.
55 of 100
Gender Schema
A mental building block of knowledge that contains information about each gender.
56 of 100
Gender Role
Behaviour seen as masculine or feminine by a particular culture.
57 of 100
Highly Gender Schematised
Where gender is an important way of thinking about the world so information is organised according to what is gender appropriate and what is gender inappropriate.
58 of 100
Aggression
Behaviour aimed at harming others.
59 of 100
Hormones
Chemicals released by our endocrine system that affect how our bodies function and how we behave.
60 of 100
Chromosomes
The parts of each cell that carry the genetic information from our parents.
61 of 100
Limbic System
The part of the brain that causes aggressive behaviour.
62 of 100
Prefrontal Cortex
The very front of the brain. it is involved in social and moral behaviour and controls aggression.
63 of 100
Brain Disease
Damage to the brain caused by illness or trauma.
64 of 100
Thanatos
The part of our unconscious that causes our aggressive drive.
65 of 100
Ego defence Mechanisms
Behaviour strategies used by the individual to protect itself.
66 of 100
Vicarious Learning
Learning to observation.
67 of 100
Monitoring
Judging whether our own behaviour is appropriate or not.
68 of 100
Punishment
A stimulus that weakens behaviour because it is unpleasant and we try to avoid it.
69 of 100
PET Scan
A technique to show how the brain is working by imaging it while the patient is carrying out a mental task.
70 of 100
Repress
Keep our emotions under very tight control and not express how we are feeling.
71 of 100
'Bobo' Doll
An inflatable doll of about 1.5 metres tall that is weighted at the bottom. It is designed to jump back up when it is knocked over.
72 of 100
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)
A disorder characterised by short attention span,poor concentration and uncontrollable aggressive outbursts.
73 of 100
Ritalin
A drug used to control Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD).
74 of 100
Psychosurgery
An operation on the brain to remove or destroy the part that is causing abnormal behaviour.
75 of 100
Catharsis
The process of getting rid of your emotions by watching other people experiencing emotion.
76 of 100
Curvilinear
A relationship that increases in strength to a point, but then begins to decrease.
77 of 100
Questionaire
A set of standard questions about a topic that is given to all the participants in the survey.
78 of 100
Survey
A method used for collecting information from a large number of people by asking them questions, either by using a questionnaire or in an interview.
79 of 100
Closed Question
A question where the possible responses are fixed, often as 'yes' or 'no' options.
80 of 100
Open Question
A question where the person answering can give any response they like.
81 of 100
Unambiguous
Something that has only one meaning.
82 of 100
Ecological Validity
The results of the investigation can be said to apply to real life behaviour. They are an accurate account of behaviour in the real world.
83 of 100
Interview
A method in which a researcher collects data by asking questions directly.
84 of 100
Interviewee
The person/respondent who answers the questions in an interview.
85 of 100
Structured Interview
An interview in which all the questions are pre-set, given in a fixed order and every interviewee is asked the same questions.
86 of 100
Unstructured Interview
An interview in which only the first question is set and all other questions are determined by the answers of the interviewee.
87 of 100
Natural Observation
Watching the behaviour of people who are in their usual environment.
88 of 100
Observation Study
A method of collecting information about behaviour by watching and recording people's actions.
89 of 100
Categories Of Behaviour
The separate actions that are recorded as examples of the target behaviour.
90 of 100
Inter-Observer Reliability
When this is high, the records made by more than one observer in a study are considered to be accurate because they match or are very similar to each other.
91 of 100
Case Study
An in-septh investigation of an individual, a small group or an organisation.
92 of 100
Relationship
A connection between two or more variables.
93 of 100
Variable
A factor or thing that can change- it varies.
94 of 100
Correlation
A technique used by researchers to establish the strength of a relationship between to variables.
95 of 100
Scatter Graph
A graph for representing correlations.
96 of 100
Positive Correlation
A relationship between two variables in which, as the value of one variable increases, the value of the other variable also increases.
97 of 100
Negative Correlation
A relationship between two variables in which, as the value of one variable increases, the value of the other variable decreases.
98 of 100
No Correlation
There is no relationship between the two variables.
99 of 100
Prediction
A statement about what will happen, made before the event occurs.
100 of 100

Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

A procedure during which an animal or person learns to associate a reflex response with a new stimulus.

Back

Classical Conditioning

Card 3

Front

The steps in the procedure to condition a new response.

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

The stimulus that produces a reflex response, such as the food for Pavlov's dog.

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

The reflex response to an unconditioned stimulus, such as Pavlov's dog's salivation.

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
View more cards

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