Unit 2

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  • Created by: Charlie__
  • Created on: 20-04-16 10:25
Outline the basic idea behind Lombroso's theory.
Lombroso believed criminals had specific characteristics that they were born with.
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What are 4 of the characteristics identified by Lombroso.
Large jaw, unibrow, high cheek bones, big ears, thick lips, curly hair, left-handed, long arms and extra fingers/toes/*******
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What was a limitation of Lombroso's theory in terms of the sample?
His study only included those in Italian prisons and it was a small sample, therefore, the sample is not representative.
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What did Sheldon's theory argue?
That there was a corrolation between body type and personality.
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Which body type did Sheldon say was more likely to be criminal/deviant?
Mesomorph.
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Where did Sheldon conduct his study?
Am criminal rehabilitation centre.
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What did Sheldon find in his study?
Many convicts were mesomorph and they were least likely to be ectomorphic.
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What is the main issue with Sheldon's study?
He mistook correlation with cause.
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What are the two main characteristics of males with XYY syndrome?
Tall and with skin problems.
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What are the statistics for people with XYY syndrome?
1 in every 1000 people.
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What are people with XYY syndrome likely to be like?
They are more likely to be aggressive.
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What percentage of murderers are male?
90%.
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What did Jacobs et al (1965) find about XYY syndrome sufferers?
That they are over-represented in prison?
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How many people per 1000 in prison suffer with XYY syndrome?
15 per 1000.
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What is the correct name of the 'warrior gene'?
MAOA-L Gene.
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What is MOA?
An enzyme that breaks down serotonin.
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What can low levels of MAOA mean?
It can mean that, they display higher levels of aggression in response to provocation.
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What is the statistic for people having the MAOA-L gene in Western populations?
1/3 of people.
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Why is the MAOA-L gene called the warrior gene?
Because in populations with a history of warfare, low activity of MAOA is much more frequent.
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What is serotonin?
Serotonin is a neurotransmitter that transmits signals from one part of the brain to another.
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What does serotonin influence?
Mood, sexual desire, sleep, memory and learning.
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What does research suggest that an imbalance of serotonin can lead to?
Depression, OCD, anxiety, panic and excess anger.
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How is this imbalance stabilized?
By prescribed medication or eat a diet that promotes the production of serotonin.
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When combined with what can low levels of serotonin be dangerous?
High levels of testosterone.
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According to many researchers, what can brain injuries link to?
Violent behaviour.
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Which area of the brain is suseptible to injury and damage?
The frontal lobe.
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What can lesions on the frontal lobe cause?
Forms of amnesia and epileptic seizures.
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What can damage to the frontal lobe cause?
Violent reactions and increased aggressive responses.
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What was Fred West responsible for?
Torturing, ****** and murdering at least 12 young women and girls, including family members.
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Did Fred West show any signs of brain abnormalities?
Yes, he had a motorbike accident when he was 17 years old. He had a metal plate inserted into his head.
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What did link Dr Ashcroft find about the brain and criminals?
That the frontal lobe is usually perfectly formed in murderers, but damaged among rapists and even more deformed in paedophiles.
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What happened to Phineas Gage?
An iron rod was forced through his entire skull destroying a lot of his frontal lobe.
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What were the consequences of Gage's accident?
His personality changed dramatically from a well liked man to an aggressive, rude man.
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What is the chance from passing Schizophrenia onto children?
20% if one parent has it and 46% if both parents have it.
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What are the three symptoms of schizophrenia?
Positive symptoms, negative symptoms and cognitive symptoms.
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What percentage of murderers are carried out by those who have schizophrenia?
5-10% of murderers.
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How many times more likely are you to commit a crime if you are schizophrenic?
3x more likely for males and 22x more likely for females.
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What is the emotional response of a schizophrenic similar to?
A psychopath.
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What crime did Peter Sutcliffe (The Yorkshire Ripper) commit?
He killed 13 women-many of which were prostitutes.
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What did Peter Sutcliffe claim the reason he killed his victims for?
He claimed he heard voices from God telling him to kill the prostitutes.
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What was Peter Sutcliffe diagnosed with?
Paranoid schizophrenia.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What are 4 of the characteristics identified by Lombroso.

Back

Large jaw, unibrow, high cheek bones, big ears, thick lips, curly hair, left-handed, long arms and extra fingers/toes/*******

Card 3

Front

What was a limitation of Lombroso's theory in terms of the sample?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What did Sheldon's theory argue?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Which body type did Sheldon say was more likely to be criminal/deviant?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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