Unit 2

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Who can be holders of information?
Many groups such as individuals, businesses and governments
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What is a USB?
Device with flash memory and an integrated USB interface
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What are some features of a USB?
Removeable and rewriteable, smaller than optical disks and have no moving parts
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How long do USB last for?
Up to ten years
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What are USB used for?
Data backups and transfer of computer files
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What are hard drives used for?
Storing and retrieving digital information
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How do hard drives work?
Rigid rotating disks coated with magnetic material pair with magnetic heads on a moving arm that reads and writes data to disk surface
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Is there an order to which data on hard drives is accessed?
No, data is accessed randomly and can be stored or retrieved in any order
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What is cloud storage?
Digital data stored in logical pools in multiple servers
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Give two advantages of cloud storage
Only need to pay for the data you use, can choose between on and off premises
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What is network storage?
A storage server connected to a computer network providing data access to a large group of clients
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How does network storage work?
Connected to a computer network, removes responsibility of file serving from other servers and uses network file sharing protocols to allow clients access
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What do Solid State Drives do?
Store data as 1's and 0's in millions of tiny transistors within the NAND chip it uses to control the movement of electrons and store data
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Give some features of SSDs
Non-volatile rewriteable memory, don't rely on magnetic properties, some use electronically eraseable programmable read-only memories
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What do Magnetic Tape Drives do?
Record using a narrow str-ip of plastic film with a thin magnetisable coating, allow data to be stored for long periods of time
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How does Optical Storage work?
Data is recorded by making marks in a pattern that can be read back with the aid of light
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Give some features of DVD menus
Single-screen, interactive on rollover, content based, recognisable scenes,high pixel depth, rollover buttons, cursor controlled, plays music related to content
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Give some features of video games
Several image icons, single screen pop-outs, content based, recognisable scenes, medium pixel depth, cursor controlled,
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Give some features of dynamic websites
Some sound, needs to be unique, high quality, interesting background, capable of zooming and panning, mouse click only, sometimes tab jumped
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Give some features of virtual reality
Cross-screen, command or movement controlled, lower resolution, images are more textual, simplified navigation (virtual hand or arrow selection)
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What is the Internet?
A networking infrastructure which connects millions of computers together globally where the computers can communicate with each other if they are all connected to the internet, information travels via protocols
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What is the World Wide Web?******
A way of accessing information using the internet, uses the HTTP protocol to transmit data
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What does Dial Up do?
Connects phone handset to modem (which turned digital signals into sound) and the signal comes back from the internet and plays into the earpiece of the phone, modem translates the audible sound back into a digital signal the computer understands
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What is the signal type in Dial Up?
Analogue
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What is the telephone line in Dial Up made of?
A pair of copper wires
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What is DSL?
Digital Subscriber Line was developed as a way to send a second signal down phone lines by sending it at a different frequency, it used a signal filter so it filters out the high frequency and you can hear the voice better
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What is coaxial cable made of?
Cables have a solid copper wire core inside a thick plastic which acts as an insulator; it has a foil shield with an aluminium jacket around it
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How does coaxial cable deliver internet access?
It uses a standard called Data Over Cable Service Interface Specification (DOCSIS), it is very similar to DSL as it uses a high frequency for data and low for voice, but it uses different frequencies for each channel
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How does fibre optic work?
A transmitter on one end converts the electrical signal to light which then pulses and travels down the glass cable to the receiver at the other end, the receiver detects the light and generates an electrical signal that the computer can use
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How does wireless broadband work and what is the main limitation?
Internet is connected through a cabled connection and then broadcasted using radio using a modem; if trees or buildings are in the way there’d be little service
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How does mobile internet work and what devices is it used for?
It uses radio waves and is used to get internet on your phone, USB stick or PC cards
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How does satellite internet work?
A signal is beamed to a satellite which turns around and beams the signal to you, everyone in your area using the satellite internet has to share the bandwidth which is equally shared out
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What is intranet?
It is a computer network based on internet technology but designed to meet the needs for sharing information within a single organisation, access is confined to the company and not to the public; they have a firewall
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What is extranet?
It is an intranet that is partially accessible to authorised outsiders, the server resides behind a firewall to control the access; the level of access can be set to different levels for individuals or groups using username/password or IP addresses
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What is extranet particularly useful for?
When large volumes of data needs to be exchanged between parties, when collaboration is needed and to help monitor and fix any potential bugs or issues with a company’s products or services
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Give some disabilities that could affect web accessibility
Blindness, restricted field of view or obstructed vision, colour blindness, cognitive disabilities, hearing disabilities, physical ailments
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Give some ways that can help individuals with disabilities that affect their ability to access the web
Mouse keys, sound sentry (gives visual indication of events that would normally be given by sound), high contrast screens, a magnifier and a basic screen reader called Narrator
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What are graphics?
Imagery used to represent data; there are two types which are bitmap and vector
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What are bitmaps?
Images and pictures created in Photoshop using pixels
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What are vectors?
Mathematically calculated forms worked out as coordinates on the screen, to enlarge it changes the parameters of the formula so the image is shrunken or stretched without the loss of quality, this takes up less file space
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What is lossless compression?
It lets you recreate the original file exactly; it breaks files into a smaller form for transmission or storage and puts it back together on the other end so it can be used again
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What is lossy compression?
It eliminates unnecessary bits of information so that the file is smaller; it is used to reduce bitmap file sizes; you cannot get the original file back once it has been compressed
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What is Dots Per Inch (DPI)?
The density of the image (the more dots per inch, the more detailed the image looks and the better it will print
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What is JPG?
A file format that uses different compression tools to reduce the size down from its original .tif format, this flattens all the layers onto one layer and you can’t undo this as the layer information isn’t saved; it is the most compatible file format
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What is BMP?
A file format that contains 256 colours, is uncompressed, has a larger file size and is quicker to load as the computer doesn’t need to think about uncompressing it
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What is PNG?
A file format that maintains all the layers when it is saved and has a smaller file size
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What is file conversion?
It is used when the user exits the creating program and it needs to be used for a different purpose such as a JPG for the web or as a gif file for using it on a web page; quality is lost; file size and file type can be changed during this process
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Give some examples of animation graphics
Examples are web graphics, flash games and educational animations; they have to be short to be effective and are useful in showing how something works
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What are web graphics?
They animate on the site and include page transitions, picture movements and interactive graphics
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What are flash games?
They are games embedded into frames on a website and work in most browsers
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What are educational animations?
They are images with animated arrows to prompt the user and include tutorials and health and safety videos
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What is audio?
Spoken information that is listened to, it includes audio books, sound in children's toys and films
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What are subtitles?
Translated speech in a film or TV program designed to be accurate and keeping in time with the film or programme, they can be used for deaf people so they can understand what is being said
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What is numerical information?
Information such as profit, date and time, they can be figures and statistics or results from experiments; they can be presented in a table or graph
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What are tactile images?
Raised images that can be perceived using the sense of touch for people who can't explore the real vision e.g. blind people
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What is boolean?
Where there are only two answers to a question on something like a form to speed up the process of data input and narrow down mistakes, examples are yes/no, true/false and a/b
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What are tables and spreadsheets?
One of the most common forms of disseminating information so that it can then be put into a chart or graph
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What are charts and graphs?
They are the visible result of the information presented within a table, the information within represents the data; the four main types are bar chart, pie chart, line chart and scatter graph
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What is braille?
A tactile reading system using dots which determine the character; it is used by blind people
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What is private data?
Data that is often controlled by access and should be held in a manner that prevents unauthorised access
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What is confidential data?
It has significant value for companies and unauthorised disclosure or dissemination could result in severe financial or reputational damage; only those who explicitly need access must be granted it
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What is sensitive data?
Data that must be protected from unauthorised access to safeguard the privacy or security of an individual or organisation such as medical records, home addresses, bank information etc.
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What is public information?
It can be disclosed or disseminated without any restrictions on content, audience or time of publication but only certain people can modify it
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What is personal data?
Data that can be traced back to a specific person and could result in harm to them if disclosed, e.g. biometric data, medical information and social security numbers
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What is business data?
Information on a business, sensitive information includes anything that poses a risk to the company in question if discovered by a competitor or the general public, examples are trade secrets, financial data and supplier information
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What is classified information?
Information that belongs to a government body and is restricted according to level of sensitivity; once the risk of harm is passed or decreased, it may be declassified and possibly made public
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What is partially anonymised data?
The partial removal of information that could lead to an individual being identified
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What is completely anonymised data?
Information is fully anonymised if there are at least 3-5 individuals to whom the information could refer
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What is non-sensitive data?
Information that is already a matter of public record or knowledge
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What is reliability?
A reliable source is a company who supplies on time, intact, detailed and useful information
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What is validity?
Means valid sources- just because a source is reliable doesn't mean it is the best for the use it is intended
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What is relevance?
It is how useful it is to the company or individual- if it fits in with their objectives
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What is accessibility?
How easy it is to get hold of information taking into account things such as legal reasons, finances, time restrictions and personal information
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What is manipulation?
When information that has been collected is processed so that it can be read better and analysed
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What is the difference between data and information?
Data are facts and figures that on their own have no meaning e.g. 5,4,12,9. Information is data that has been processed within a context to give it meaning.
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What is internal information?
Information produced/collected by the business themselves
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What is external information?
Information gathered from a source outside of the business
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What is primary research?
The collection of data that doesn't already exist by the company itself and for a purpose specific to the company
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What is secondary research?
The summary or collation of existing research from another company
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What are qualitative methods?
Collecting data which are concerned with describing purpose and meaning; they provide more in depth description, opinion based responses
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What are quantitative methods?
Statistically reliable information obtained from numerical measurement
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What is big data?
The large volume of structured and unstructured data that a business works with on a day-to-day basis; it can be analysed for insights that lead to better decisions and strategic business moves
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What is a Management Information System?
Computer-based system that provides managers with the tools to organise, evaluate and efficiently manage departments within a business
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What is financial analysis and modelling?
A process used in predictive analytics to create a statistical model of future behaviour
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What is the role of a Knowledge Management System?
Enables employees to have ready access to the organisation's databases, sources of information and solutions
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What is a Contact Management System?
A model for managing a company's interactions with current and future customers
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What are the 8 stages of data analysis?
Identify the need (1), define scope (2), identify potential sources (3), source and select information (4), select the most appropriate tools (5), process and analyse data (6), record and store information (7), share results (8)
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What does an information system do?
Collects, processes, stores and analyses data and shares the information generated with decision makers
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What is an open information system?
An archive consisting of an organisation's data and systems, it interacts with its environment and is 'self-organising'
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What is a closed information system?
One that does not change, has no external input or added information to push it forward
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What is Data Protection Act 1998?
Allows a person the right to know what information an organisation holds on them and the right to correct information that is wrong
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What is Computer Misuse Act?
Enacted to respond to the growing threat of hacking to computer systems and data
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What is Copyright Legislation?
Gives the creators of some types of media the right to control how they are used and distributed
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What is a USB?

Back

Device with flash memory and an integrated USB interface

Card 3

Front

What are some features of a USB?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

How long do USB last for?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What are USB used for?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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