Unit 1,3,5 Physical geography

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How do people prepare for earthquakes?
Practice drills, teaching drop cover hold on in schools, preparedness days, grab bags, earthquake proof buildings,
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Why is it hard to prepare for earthquakes?
It is very expensive so LDC have more important things to spend money on then cant afford it, Earthquakes are unpredictable
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National effects of super volcano eruption?
87000 people die, 1 in 3 of people in 1000km die, 15cm of ash cover buildings in 1000km
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Global effects of super volcano eruption?
Ash would reach UK in 5 days, Ash in atmosphere would block out sun light causing global temperatures to decrease by 15 degrees, economies fall, famines
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Effects of Montserrat composite volcano case study?
19 dead, 20 villages destroyed by pyroclastic flow, capital of Plymouth covered in 13m of mud and ash,NO tourism, population decline of 8000/12000
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Responses of Montserrat composite volcano case study?
Whole south island evacuated to north, Temporary infrastructure built, excluison zone set up, UKprovdided £17 million immediatley then £41 millionn to rebuild north of island
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Characteristics of super volacno?
1000 times bigger than Montserrat, 80/100km wide, emit 1000km^3 of material
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Mining fold mountain case study and fact?
Andes, Yanacocha gold mine... largest open cast gold mine in the world
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Farming fold mountain case study and fact?
Andes, Llamas used as they're good in high altitude, crops grown are maize rice and soya
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H.E.P fold mountain case study and fact?
Andes, El platianal... reservoir filled by snow melt from snow on top of fold mountains
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Tourism fold mountain case study and fact?
Andes, Machu picchu... walk the ancient inca trail, beautiful scenery, skiing
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LDC earthquake characteristics?
Haiti,2010, 7.0 magnitude, 230,000 dead, 13km depth of focus , epicentre in capital city of port au prince
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MDC earthquake characteristics?
Chile,2010,8.8 magnitude, 521 dead, 34km depth of focus, Epicentre 100km from city of Conception
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LDC earthquake effects?
220,000 dead, 1 million homeless, 2 million without food, water contaminated with dead bodies, couldnt dispose of dead, all transport links destroyed, slow aid
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LDC earthquake responses?
Aid of food water tents, US military brought in, still dependant on aid
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MDC earthquake effects?
500 dead, 500,000 buildings destroyed, loss of power, tsunami warning
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MDC earthquake responses?
10 day power back, money raised its own money, house rebuilding plan also paid by chile
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Characteristics of tsunami case study?
Boxing day, 2004, 9.1 magnitude, Indian ocean,
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Countries affected by tsunami case study?
Indonesia, Sri lanka, Somalia, Thai land, India, Kenya
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Effects of case study tsunami?
220,000 dead, 2 million homeless, Sumatra which was closest to epicentre had 70% of coastal population wiped out, Sri lanka loss of livelihoods with boats in middle of city/lost, Thailand loss of tourism
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Responses of case study tsunami?
international aid, $7 billion worldwide, $330 million donated by people of UK more than by the government, restoring mangroves
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How is rain formed at the warm front?
Cold and hot air meet and as cold air is more dense it undercuts warm air forcing it to rise then it ccc.
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Define altitude and latitude?
Altitude is distance above sea level, Latitude is distance from the equator
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What are the millibars of a depression and anticyclone?
Depression: under 1009mb Anticyclone: over 1009mb
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Characteristics of Kyoto protocol?
1997, most countries signed only MDC, USA did not sign, aimed to cut greeenhouse gas emission by 5% by 2012, used carbon credit system
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Characteristics of Paris climate change agreement?
2015, 196 countries signed which is most all types of countries, aimed to keep golbal temperatures down by 2 degrees, MDC donate $800 billion to LDC so they can convert to renewable energy sources
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MDC flood case study cause?
November 2009, 30cm of rain in 24 hours, Cockermouth at confluence, building on flood plains
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LDC flood case study cause?
July and August 2004, 80% of country lies on floodplain, deforestation to build huts
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Effects of MDC flood casestudy?
Pc Braker dies, 1300 homes destroyed, 50 people rescued by helicopter, average repair cost for each household £28000, 4 bridges colapsed ,12 bridges closed
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Responses of MDC flood casestudy?
£1 million donated by government to rebuild bridges, fund set up raised £1 million, network rail set up temporary station, insurances pay out of £100 million, flood warning set up for future
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Effects of LDC flood casestudy?
750 deaths, 30 million homeless, factories closed, 44 schools destroyed, 60% of country under water, sewage made 10000 people ill with water borne diseases, loss of rice crops which are main part to diet
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Responses of LDC flood casestudy?
No roads slowed down people leaving, aid of normal and rescue boats, international charities rebuilt homes, homes rebuilt on stilts, embankments built but then abandoned as too expensive, tall shelters set up, flood warnings set up through village
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Kielder water facts?
Transfers from reservoir in Northumberland to Newcastle, biggest reservoir in northern Europe, 12km long 52m deep, £167 million to build, built to meet increased demand in east of England
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Reasons why hard engineering is better than soft engineering?
Prevents an actual flood, soft engineering cannot be done in developed towns cites, can create HEP, reservoirs used for leisure
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Card 2

Front

Why is it hard to prepare for earthquakes?

Back

It is very expensive so LDC have more important things to spend money on then cant afford it, Earthquakes are unpredictable

Card 3

Front

National effects of super volcano eruption?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Global effects of super volcano eruption?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Effects of Montserrat composite volcano case study?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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