unit 1 memory

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What is encoding?
Placing words of memory by putting them in the form of a code
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What is retrieval?
The recovery of stored info from the memory system
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What did Baddley find?
In STM words acoustically dissimilar and in LTM words semantically similar
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What did Nairne et al find that didn't support Peterson & Peterson?
Items can be recalled as long as up to 96 seconds, hence if info remains in STM for a long time unless other material replaces or over writes it
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What did the primacy recency study show?
Shows displacement happens when trying to remember things and primacy shows rehersal into STM and LTM
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What did Graik and Lockhart find?
It is due to importance of info not rehersal, things processed memory more deeply and more memorable bcos way remembered, so shows rehersal isn't neccessary
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Who thought of the memory store model?
Atkinson and Shriffin
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What does the phonological loop do?
Auditory info- holds words you hear, and preserves order of info
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What is the role of the visuo spatial sketchpad?
Used when need to plan spatial tasks and what things look like
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What did Baddley show about STM?
People can do 2 tasks at once, showing that the WMM is a more accurate model of STM
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What did Eslinger and Damasio find?
EVR could only problem solve and do one task, but couldn't make decisions, showing that the CE must be more than a single component
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What did Bunge et al do?
Used MRI scanner and got P to read a sentence and recall the final word in each sentence
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What did Bunge et al find?
Some brain areas were more active in either dual or single task conditions, the brain was more active in dual task conditions, indicates more demand reflects in brain activity
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What is an acronym?
Word or sentence formed from initial letters of other words eq ROYGBIV are colours of the rainbow
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What is an acrostic?
Poem or sentence where the first letter in each line or word forms the item eq My Very Easy Method Just Speeds Up Naming Planets = the names of planets
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What is chunking?
Long string of info split into memorable chunks eq phone numbers or post codes
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What is a rhyme?
Group of words with an identity that have a rhythm eq using twinkle twinkle little star tune for the alphabet
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What are methods of visual mnemonics?
Key word method, method of Loci, Mind maps, Spiderdiagrams
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How does the Method of loci work?
Organises the order of a model eg the WMM and includes dual encoding and role of elaboration through remembering visually
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How does the key word method work?
Includes dual encoding, as you picture visual info as well as the word and organisation by linking memory essentials with the brain
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How do spider diagrams and and mind maps work?
Organises roles of things and establishes links with colours, words and images. It also involves elaborative rehersal helps you remember the information
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What is the role of organisation
By organising data we establish links that help recall. Word associations and visual images create links and association.
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How do mnemonic techniques help accelerate the process of organisation?
Actively link new information with memory hooks, something that is already in your memory that can acts as hooks for other info, and also refers to actually putting things in order w
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What did Bower find?
Ps given words that were organised recalled info 2 or 3 times better than words given in a random order
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What is the role of elaborative rehearsal?
Mnemonic techniques elaborate the info to be remembered, the amount of rehearsal is important but the nature of rehearsal is more important
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What is the dual coding hypothesis?
Paivo beleives concrete words which can be made into images are double encoded in memory, they're coded once in verbal symbols and once as image based symbols, double encoding increases liklihood it'll be remembered
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What did Bower find?
Ps who had to produce a link between two words eq cat and brick recalled 80% of words, where as those who were asked to just memorise words recalled 45%
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What did the US Department of Justic post in a report 'convicted by juries'?
28 individuals released from prison after being accused of sexual assualts and murders, they served a total of 197 years in prison between them
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What is the order of EWT?
Witness encodes details into LTM of the event and can be partial and distorted - Witness retains info for a duration, where they can be lost or modified, and other activities can interfere - The EW retrieves memory from storage
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What did Yarmey do?
Stopped 651 adults in the street and asked to recall physical characteristics of a woman who spoke to them for 15 seconds, 2 mins ago
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What did Yarmey find?
Young and middle aged Ps more confident in recall, but no significant difference in accuracy
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What did Anastasia Rhodes find?
Ps more confident recognising own age and middle aged adults more accurate than older
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What did Christianson & Hubinette find?
After questioning 58 real witnesses to a bank robbery, those who were threatened in some way were more accurate
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What did Loftus and Palmer find in the study on speed?
Smashed = 41 mph and contacted=30mph
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What id the real world application of the studies conducted of Loftus and Palmer?
Police can influence answers they get from EWT, which has lead to development of cognitive interview
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What happens in a standard line up?
Know police think its one of the people, pick person most like offender
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What is different in the sequential line up?
See on person at a time, not comparing them
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What are differences between cognitive interview and standard interview?
C= structured process S= no structure - C= long process bcos uninterupted account and probe topics S=control time, usually short - C=Open Qs S=closed & try to find out what want so can mislead & C= accuracy of recalls 90% S=29.4% accuracy
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What is in a cognitive interview?
Context reinstatement, obtain uninterrupted account, other recall strategies, probe topics and review
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What is the context reinstatement?
Mentally relive it, talk about: Time, dat, where they where, what was happening, what the weather was like
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What is uninterupted account?
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What is included in probe topics?
Identify topic - Probe - Summarise - Link (reinstate context)
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Card 2


What is retrieval?


The recovery of stored info from the memory system

Card 3


What did Baddley find?


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


What did Nairne et al find that didn't support Peterson & Peterson?


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


What did the primacy recency study show?


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